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Surface Modifiers for Use with Particulate Fillers

2

Christopher DeArmitt and Roger Rothon

Contents

Definition......................................................................................... 30

Introduction....................................................................................... 30

General Principles................................................................................ 31

Methods of Using Surface Modifiers......................................................... 31

Coating Level................................................................................. 33

Surface Modifier Types........................................................................... 35

Carboxylic Acids and Related Compounds.................................................. 35

Saturated Fatty Acids......................................................................... 36

Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids and Related Compounds.................................... 39

Dimaleimides.................................................................................. 39

Polymeric Acids and Anhydrides............................................................. 39

Organosilicon Compounds.................................................................... 41

Other Organometallic Coupling Agents (Organo-Titanates and Zirconates)................ 45

Conclusions and Future Directions............................................................... 48

Cross-References................................................................................. 48

References........................................................................................ 48

Abstract

The interface between a particulate filler and the polymer matrix plays an important role in determining the processability and properties of composites. The surface of most commonly used particulate fillers, with the exception of carbon blacks, is suboptimal for this purpose and surface modification is widely used, both to enhance wetting and to improve interaction with the polymer.

C. DeArmitt

Phantom Plastics LLC, Terrace Park, OH, USA e-mail: This email address is being protected from spam bots, you need Javascript enabled to view it

R. Rothon (*)

Rothon Consultants and Manchester Metropolitan University, Guilden Sutton, Chester, UK e-mail: This email address is being protected from spam bots, you need Javascript enabled to view it

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

R. Rothon (ed.), Fillers for Polymer Applications, Polymers and Polymeric Composites: A Reference Series, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-28117-9_8

This modification is generally achieved by chemically reacting a suitable organic modifier with the filler surface.

Two distinct types of surface modifier can be recognized, noncoupling and coupling, depending on the type of organic group introduced. Both types have strong anchorage to the filler surface; but only the coupling type has strong interaction with the polymer. Fatty acids are the most common noncoupling treatment, while organo-silanes are most often used as coupling treatments.

Reaction of the filler surface can be carried out before addition to the polymer or during the polymer/filler mixing process. Both methods have advantages and limitations and are widely used.

Keywords

Filler • Surface • Modifier • Fatty acid • Stearic acid • Organo-silane • Organo- titanate • Zirco-aluminate

 
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