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Conclusions and Future Directions

Surface modification can be used to produce a variety of useful effects in particulate- filled polymer composites and has been vital to the growth of particulate filler technology. This will continue to be the case going forward.

The main products in use fall into two types: coupling and noncoupling. While they each give different effects, both are useful depending on the application requirements.

The main commercial products are fatty acids (predominately noncoupling) and organo-silanes (predominately coupling). No new types are likely to emerge in the immediate future, but there may be some tweaking of composition to reduce issues with VOC emissions.

Cross-References

  • ? Compounding of Particulate-Filled Thermoplastics
  • ? Particulate Fillers in Elastomers
  • ? Particulate Fillers in Thermoset Plastics
  • ? Particulate Fillers in Thermoplastics
  • ? Particulate Fillers, Selection, and Use in Polymer Composites
  • ? Precipitated and Fumed Silicas and Related Products

References

Borup B, Weissenbach K (2010) Chapter 4, Silane coupling agents. In: Xanthos M (ed) Functional fillers for plastics, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. ISBN 978-3-527-32361-6 Cohen LB (1992) Zircoaluminate adhesion promoters. In: Mittal KL (ed) Silanes and other coupling agents. VSP BV, Utrecht, pp 559-568. ISBN 90-6764-142-1 Fein HK, Patnaik BK, Chu FKY (1978) Inventors; Dart Industries, assignees. US Patent 4,073,766

Fekete E, Pukanszky B, Toth A, Bertoti I (1990) Surface modification and characterization of particulate mineral fillers. J Colloid Interface Sci 135:200 Godlewski RE, Heggs RP (1989) Chapter 2, Coupling agents. In: Lutz JT Jr (ed) Thermoplastic polymer additives. Marcel Dekker, New York/Basle Hancock M et al (1980) Fillers in polypropylene. J Polym Sci Polym Chem Ed 18:3211 Khunova V, Sain MM (1995) Optimization of the mechanical strength of reinforced composites. Angew Makromol Chem 224:9

Liauw CM (2003) Chapter 3, Analytical techniques for characterising filler surfaces. In: Rothon RN (ed) Particulate-filled polymer composites, 2nd edn. Rapra Technology, Shrewsbury. ISBN 1-85957-382-7

Mack H (2002) Functional fillers for plastics 2002. Intertech, Toronto

Monte SJ (1993) Ken react reference manual. Kenrich Petrochemicals, Bayonne Second Revised Edition

Monte SJ (2010) Chapter 5, Titanate coupling agents. In: Xanthos M (ed) Functional fillers for plastics. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim

Nakatsuka T (1985) Surface modification of calcium carbonate for polymer composites. J Polym Sci Technol 27:51-75

Nakatsuka T et al (1982) Phosphate coupling agents for calcium carbonate filler. J Appl Polym Sci 27:259-269

Plueddemann EP (1982) Silane coupling agents. Plenum Press, New York Rothon RN (1984) The CaCO3 challenge. Eur Rubber J 39:37-42

Rothon RN (1990) Unsaturated, bifunctional polymeric coupling agents. In: Ishida H (ed) Proceedings of the third international conference on composite interfaces. Elsevier, New York

Rothon RN (2003) Chapter 4, Surface modification and surface modifiers. In: Rothon RN (ed) Particulate-filled polymer composites, 2nd edn. Rapra Technology, Shrewsbury. ISBN 1-85957-382-7

Rothon RN (2010) Chapter 6, Functional polymers and other modifiers. In: Xanthos M (ed) Functional fillers for plastics. Wiley-VCH, Weinhiem Rothon RN, Liauw CM, Lees GC, Schofield WCE (2002a) Magnesium hydroxide filled EVA: The effects of filler surface modification on the strength of filler matrix adhesion and the consequences for composite structure and properties. J Adhes 78:603 Rothon RN et al (2002b) Functionalized acids as filler surface treatments. In: Proceedings of functional fillers for plastics, Intertech. Corp., Toronto Schofield JD, Bloyce PE, Thetford D, Rothon RN, Liauw CM (2003) A novel coupling agent technology. Polym Polym Compos 11(2):71-79

Sharma YN et al (1982) Studies of the effect of titanate coupling agents on the performance of polypropylene-calcium carbonate Composites. J Appl Polym Sci 27:97 Xanthos M (1983) Processing conditions and coupling agent effects in polypropylene/wood flour composites. Plast Rubber Proc Appl 3(3):223-228

 
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