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Conclusions and Future Directions

Surface modification can be used to produce a variety of useful effects in particulate- filled polymer composites and has been vital to the growth of particulate filler technology. This will continue to be the case going forward.

The main products in use fall into two types: coupling and noncoupling. While they each give different effects, both are useful depending on the application requirements.

The main commercial products are fatty acids (predominately noncoupling) and organo-silanes (predominately coupling). No new types are likely to emerge in the immediate future, but there may be some tweaking of composition to reduce issues with VOC emissions.


  • ? Compounding of Particulate-Filled Thermoplastics
  • ? Particulate Fillers in Elastomers
  • ? Particulate Fillers in Thermoset Plastics
  • ? Particulate Fillers in Thermoplastics
  • ? Particulate Fillers, Selection, and Use in Polymer Composites
  • ? Precipitated and Fumed Silicas and Related Products


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