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Micas in Other Polymers
Sreekanth et al. measured the mechanical, thermal, and morphological influence of muscovite mica on the properties of PBT (Sreekanth 2009).
Inorganic fillers, viz., mica, added to the polymer improved its rigidity, strength, and thermal stability, but dramatically decreased the elongation at break. There is a significant increment in the flexural strength and modulus with an increase in the filler concentration. The impact strength decreases with concentration of filler due to the reduction of elasticity of material due to filler addition and thereby reducing the deformability of matrix. There is a significant increase in the dielectric strength with filler addition. Addition of mica improved the thermal properties of the composites due to small and uniform crystallite size distribution. Morphological studies showed that there is a better interaction between filler and the matrix at lower filler concentration and platelets are aligned parallel to each other. The mechanical properties of the composite were found to be a function of the particle size, aspect ratio, the dispersion, the particle orientation, the interfacial interaction between the minerals, and the polymer matrix. Platy structured filler such as mica gave significant improvement in stiffness. It is concluded that the composite showed improved mechanical (flexural), thermal, and electrical properties on addition of filler.
Thomas et al. (2013) described the influence of compatibilizers and mica on the properties of the completely immiscible polymers TPUs (thermoplastic polyurethanes) and POs (thermoplastic polyolefins); the effects of incorporation of polypropylene copolymer (PPCP), TPU-g-MA (maleic anhydride-grafted TPU), and TPU-g-AA (acrylic acid-grafted TPU) as compatibilizer on the miscibility of the blends and effect of mica filler to enhance the mechanical properties were studied.
Compatibilizers such as polypropylene copolymer (PPCP), TPU-g-MA, and TPU-g-AA were found to be good compatibilizers for the TPU/PO blends. Addition of mica as filler into the blends with compatibilizer increased the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, hardness, and elongation and decreases the impact strength. SEM images show good dispersion of mica filler into the blend matrix.
Busigin et al. (Polypropylenes 1984) measured the influence of aspect ratio of specially prepared phlogopite mica model fillers (wet ground, narrowly classified) on the mechanical properties of polypropylene compounds. The higher the aspect ratio, the higher the modulus of the compound, but tensile strength was only little influenced. Tensile strength was to a greater extent depending on particle size as such with the smallest particle sizes resulting in the highest tensile strength. HDT and notched impact strength were mostly dependent on the filler concentration used than on other parameters. The finer the phlogopite, the more often reprocessing could be performed without deterioration of mechanical properties.
Busigin C, Lahtinen R, Martinez GM, Thomas G, Woodhams RT (1984) Polypropylenes. T P-F Polym Eng Sci 24(3):169-174
Merlin Thomas AD (2013) A study on the influence of compatibilizer and mica filler on the properties of thermoplastic polyurethane/polyolefins blends. Chem Sci Trans 2(1):181—191 Nolte-Ernsting B (2007) Glimmer fur temperaturbestandige Kunststoffe. Kunststoffe 9:237-240 Sreekanth MS (2009) Effect of concentration of mica on properties of polyester thermoplastic. J Min Mater Charact Eng 4(4):271-281
Thorsten Hilgers HM (2010) Properties made to measure. Kunstoffe Int 8:S.68-S.72 USGS (2012) U.S. geological survey minerals yearbook - 2011. US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey, US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey Zilles JU (2006) High performance fillers conference 2006. Conference proceedings, Cologne
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