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Borosilicate Glass (Also Known as Pyrex)
Borosilicate glass (or sodium borosilicate glass) is made mainly of silica (70-80%) and boric oxide (7-13%) with smaller amounts of the alkalis (sodium and potassium oxides) and aluminum oxide. This type of glass has excellent chemical durability and thermal shock resistance - meaning it does not break when changing temperature quickly. As a result of its special properties, sodium borosilicate glass is widely used for laboratory apparatus, pharmaceutical containers, high intensity lighting applications, and as glass fibers for textile and plastic reinforcement - as well as for common household oven and cookware. It is significantly more expensive than soda-lime glass.
The composition of glass fiber varies with the application. Commercial (soda-lime) glass is used for building insulation and glass wool, while alumino-borosilicate glass with very low sodium oxide content is preferred for textiles and in reinforced plastics, because of its good chemical durability and high softening point.
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