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Future Prospects

There is no doubt that pressures to improve sustainability of the volume fillers, especially those used in automotive applications such as tires, will increase. As such, despite the difficulties involved, we can expect more recycling and use of renewables in the future.


  • ? Carbon Black as a Polymer Filler
  • ? Calcium Carbonate Fillers
  • ? Fillers from Organic Sources
  • ? Nanofillers
  • ? Surface Modifiers for Use with Particulate Fillers
  • ? Talcs


Aysawarya EP et al (2012) Rice husk ash, a valuable resource for HDPE. Mater Des 41:1-7 Bhuiyan MW, Mojumdar MRR, Hasan AKM (2011) An improved method to generate electricity and precipitated silica from rice husk: perspective Bangladesh. Int J Environ Sci Develop 2(4), pp 299-305

Chaudhary DS et al (2004) Recycling rice hull ash: a filler material for polymeric composites? Adv Polym Technol 23(2):147-155

Clemons CM (2010) Chapter 15, wood flour. In: Xanthos M (ed) Functional fillers for plastics, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 269-290

Demoura Estevao LR et al (2005) Spent oil refinery catalyst: a synergistic agent in intumescent formulations for polyethylenic materials. In: Le Bras M, Wilkie CA, Bourbigot S, DuQuesne S, Jama C (eds) Fire retardancy of polymers new applications of mineral fillers. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK pp 313-326. ISBN 0-85404-582-1 Ghosh R, Bhattacherjee S (2013) A review study on precipitated silica and activated carbon from rice husk. J Chem Eng Process Technol 4:4. doi:10.4172/2157-7048.1000156 Haxo HE, Mehta PK (1975) Ground rice-hull ash as a filler for rubber. Rubber chemistry and technology: 48(2):pp. 271-288. doi: Lin N, Huang J, Chang PR, Anderson DP, Yu J (2011) Preparation, modification, and application of starch nanocrystals in nanomaterials: a review. J Nanomater 2011:13 pages. Article ID 573687. doi:10.1155/2011/573687

Mainka H, Laue M, Cherif C, Herrmann AS (2015) Lignin powder as a filler for thermoplastic lightweight design components. ATZ worldwide eMagazines issue no: 2015-03, 0312015, vol 117

Mariano M, Kissi NE, Dufresne A (2014) Cellulose nanocrystals and related nanocomposites: review of some properties and challenges. J Polym Sci Part B Poly Phys 52(12):791-806 Norris CJ, Bennett M (2014) Factors controlling the in-rubber performance of pyrolysis chars.

Paper presented at RubberCon 2014, Manchester, May 2014, ISBN 1-86125-176-9 Srilathakutty R et al (2002) Rice hull ash as a filler in microcellular soles. Int J Environ Stud 59(1):133—142

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