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1 The reference here is to Robert Michel’s classical identification of the iron law of oligarchy in the institutionalization of social movements. For a critical appreciation, see Clemens (1993).


Abbott, Andrew. 2007. “Mechanisms and Relations.” Sociologica 2: 1-22.

Ackerly, Brooke A., Maria Stern, and Jacqui True. 2006. Feminist Methodologies for International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Apodaca, Clair. 2009. “Overcoming Obstacles in Quantitative Feminist Research.” Politics & Gender 5 (3): 419-426.

Asthana, Sheena, Joyce Halliday, and Alex Gibson. 2009. “Social Exclusion and Social Justice: A Rural Perspective on Resource Allocation.” Policy & Politics 37 (2): 201-214.

Banta, Benjamin. 2013. “Analysing Discourse as a Causal Mechanism.” European Journal of International Relations 19 (2): 379-402.

Caprioli, Mary. 2000. “Gendered Conflict.” Journal of Peace Research 37 (1): 51-68.

  • - 2004a. “Democracy and Human Rights Versus Women’s Security: A Contradiction?” Security Dialogue 35 (4): 411-428.
  • - 2004b. “Feminist IR Theory and Quantitative Methodology: A Critical Analysis.”

International Studies Review 6 (2): 253-269.

- 2005. “Primed for Violence: The Role of Gender Inequality in Predicting Internal

Conflict.” International Studies Quarterly 49 (2): 161-178.

Carpenter, Charli R. 2002. “Gender Theory in World Politics: Contributions of a Nonfeminist Standpoint?” International Studies Review 4 (3): 153-156.

Checkel, Jeffrey T. 2006. “Tracing Causal Mechanisms.” International Studies Review 8 (2): 362-370.

Clemens, Elisabeth S. 1993. “Organizational Repertoires and Institutional Change: Women’s Groups and the Transformation of US Politics, 1890-1920.” American Journal of Sociology 98 (4): 755-798.

Cohen, Dara Kay. 2013. “Explaining Rape during Civil War: Cross-National Evidence (1980—2009).” American Political Science Review 107 (3): 461—477.

Cohen, Dara Kay and Ragnhild Nordas. 2014. “Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict: Introducing the SVAC Dataset, 1989-2009.” Journal of Peace Research 51 (3): 418-428.

Daly, Mary. 2005. “Gender Mainstreaming in Theory and Practice.” Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 12 (3): 433-450.

Elster, Jon. 1989. Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

George, Alexander L. and Andrew Bennett. 2005. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Gross, Neil. 2009. “A Pragmatist Theory of Social Mechanisms.” American Sociological Review 74 (3): 358-379.

Guzzini, Stefano. 2011. “Securitization as a Causal Mechanism.” Security Dialogue 42 (4-5): 329-341.

Haraway, Donna. 1988. “Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective.” Feminist Studies 14 (3): 575-599.

Hartmann, Heidi. 1976. “Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Job Segregation by Sex.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 1 (3): 137-169.

Hartsock, Nancy. 1998. The Feminist Standpoint Revisited and Other Essays. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Hedstrom, Peter and Richard Swedberg. 1996. “Social Mechanisms.” Acta Sociologica 39 (3): 281-308.

Hedstrom, Peter and Richard Swedberg, eds. 1998. Social Mechanisms: An Analytical Approach to Social Theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Jessop, Bob. 2007. “The Gender Selectivities of the State.” In Bob Jessop, ed. State Power: A Strategic-Relational Approach. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Kurki, Milja. 2008. Causation in International Relations: Reclaiming Causal Analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Lebow, Richard Ned. 2014. Constructing Cause in International Relations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Locher, Birgit and Elisabeth Prugl. 2001. “Feminism and Constructivism: Worlds Apart or Sharing the Middle Ground?” International Studies Quarterly 45 (1): 111-129.

Lombardo, Emanuela and Petra Meier. 2006. “Gender Mainstreaming in the EU: Incorporating a Feminist Reading?” European Journal of Women’s Studies 13 (2): 151-166.

MacKinnon, Catharine A. 1983. “Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State: Toward Feminist Jurisprudence.” Signs 8 (4): 635-658.

Manzo, Gianluca. 2010. “Analytical Sociology and Its Critics.” European Journal of Sociology 51 (1): 129-170.

Moser, Caroline O.N. 1989. “Gender Planning in the Third World: Meeting Practical and Strategic Gender Needs.” World Development 17 (11): 1799-1825.

Onuf, Nicholas Greenwood. 1998. “Constructivism: A User’s Manual.” In Vendulka Kubalkova, Nicholas Onuf, and Paul Kowert, eds., International Relations in a Constructed World, pp. 58-79. Aromonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

-2012. World of Our Making: Rules and Rule in Social Theory and International Relations.

New York: Routledge.

Prugl, Elisabeth. 2011a. Transforming Masculine Rule: Agriculture and Rural Development in the European Union. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

-2011b. “Diversity Management and Gender Mainstreaming as Technologies of Government.” Politics & Gender 7 (1): 71-89.

Rankin, Katharine N. 2001. “Governing Development: Neoliberalism, Microcredit, and Rational Economic Woman.” Economy and Society 30 (1): 18-37.

Reeves, Audrey. 2012. “Feminist Knowledge and Emerging Governmentality in UN Peacekeeping: Patterns of Co-Optation and Empowerment.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 14 (3): 348-369.

Sauer, Birgit. 2001. Die Asche Des Souverans: Staat Und Demokratie in Der Geschlechterdebatte. Frankfurt, Germany: Campus Verlag.

Tickner, J. Ann. 2005. “What Is Your Research Program? Some Feminist Answers to International Relations Methodological Questions.” International Studies Quarterly 49 (1): 1-22.

Tilly, Charles. 2001. “Mechanisms in Political Processes.” Annual Review of Political Science 4 (1): 21-41.

-2004. “Social Boundary Mechanisms.” Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (2): 211-236.

True, Jacqui. 2009. “The Unfulfilled Mandate: Gender Mainstreaming and UN Peace Operations.” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 10 (2): 41-50.

Wibben, Annick T.R. 2011. Feminist Security Studies: A Narrative Approach. London: Routledge.

Wight, Colin. 2004. “Theorizing the Mechanisms of Conceptual and Semiotic Space.” Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (2): 283-299.

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