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Home arrow History arrow The Art of World-Making: Nicholas Greenwood Onuf and his Critics


  • 1 Note that according to Onuf’s own account he came to Constructivism through gender theory.
  • 2 The list is long. To mention just two different examples, see Alker (1996 [1986]) and Milner (1991).
  • 3 See: Gilpin (1987; 2001) for an attempt to understand world order on the basis of the interaction between states and markets; Susan Strange’s (1988) redefinition of power and her four structures of power; and Robert Cox’s (1987) neo-Gramscian view on world order.
  • 4 This is our way of reading one of the divides made visible in the debate prompted by Jerry Cohen (2007).
  • 5 See e.g., Ashley (1987; 1989); Neumann and Sending (2010) and Guzzini (2012).
  • 6 In fact, this point can be strengthened by showing the crucial place of the liberal “art of separation” in realist theorizing. See the discussion in Guzzini (2013, 249-252).
  • 7 It strikes us that the only thinker who is a consistent positive reference point is Friedrich Kratochwil.


Alker, Hayward R., Jr. 1996 [1986]. “The Presumption of Anarchy in World Politics: On Recovering the Historicity of World Society.” In Hayward R. Alker, ed., Rediscoveries and Reformulations: Humanistic Methodologies for International Studies, pp. 355-393. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Aron, Raymond. 1962. Paix et Guerre entre les Nations. Paris: Calmann-Levy.

Ashley, Richard K. 1987. “The Geopolitics of Geopolitical Space: Toward a Critical Social Theory of International Politics.” Alternatives XII (4): 403-434.

- 1989. “Imposing International Purpose: Notes on a Problematique of Governance.”

In Ernst-Otto Czempiel and James Rosenau, eds., Global Changes and Theoretical Challenges: Approaches to World Politics for the 1990s, pp. 251-290. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Bourdieu, Pierre and Loic Wacquant. 1999. “On the Cunning of Imperialist Reason.” Theory, Culture & Society 16 (1): 41-57.

Cohen, Benjamin J. 2007. “The Transatlantic Divide: Why Are American and British IPE So Different?” Review of International Political Economy 14 (2): 197-219.

Cox, Robert W. 1987. Production, Power and World Order: Social Forces in the Making of History. New York: Columbia University Press.

Gilpin, Robert with the assistance of Jean Gilpin. 1987. The Political Economy of International Relations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

-2001. Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Guzzini, Stefano. 2012. “The Ambivalent ‘Diffusion of Power’ in Global Governance.” In Stefano Guzzini and Iver B. Neumann, eds., The Diffusion of Power in Global Governance: International Political Economy Meets Foucault, pp. 1-37. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

-2013. “Liberal International Order.” In Tim Dunne and Trine Flockhart, eds., Liberalism and World Order, Vol. 190, pp. 247-256. Oxford: Oxford University Press/Proceed- ings of the British Academy.

Hacking, Ian. 1999. The Social Construction of What? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kelsen, Hans. 1966. Principles of International Law. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Kennedy, David. 1987. International Legal Structure. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

Koskenniemi, Marti. 2006 [1989]. From Apology to Utopia: The Structure of International Legal Argument, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Milner, Helen. 1991. “The Assumption of Anarchy in International Relations Theory: A Critique.” Review of International Studies 17 (1): 67—85.

Neumann, Iver B. and Ole Jacob Sending. 2010. Governing the Global Polity: Practice, Mentality, Rationality. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Neumann, Iver B. and Ole Wsver. 1997. The Future of International Relations: Masters in the Making? New York: Routledge.

Nexon, Daniel H. and Thomas Wright. 2007. “What’s at Stake in the American Empire Debate.” American Political Science Review 101 (2): 253—271.

Onuf, Nicholas Greenwood. 1975a. “Review of Law and Lawyers in International Crises Suez 1956 by Robert R. Bowie; The Cuban Missile Crisis by Abram Chayes; Cyprus 1958-1967 by Thomas Ehrlich.” International Organization 29 (4): 1035-1053.

  • - 1975b. “Peace Research Parochialism.” Journal of Peace Research 12 (1): 71-78.
  • - 1979a. “International Legal Order as an Idea.” The American Journal of International

Law 73 (2): 244-266.

- 1989a. “Review of International Legal Structure, by David Kennedy.” The American

Journal of International Law 83 (3): 630-640.

- 1989b. World of Our Making: Rules and Rule in Social Theory and International Relations.

Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.

  • - 1990. “Review of From Apology to Utopia: The Structure of International Legal Argument, by Martti Koskenniemi.” The American Journal of International Law 84 (2): 771-775.
  • -1991. “Sovereignty: Outline of a Conceptual History.” Alternatives 16 (4): 425-446.
  • - 1994. “The Constitution of International Society.” European Journal of International

Law 5 (1): 1-19.

  • - 1998. The Republican Legacy in International Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • - 2002. “Institutions, Intentions and International Relations.” Review of International

Studies 28 (2): 211-228.

  • -2010. “Old Mistakes: Bourdieu, Derrida, and the ‘Force of Law’.” International Political Sociology 4 (3): 15-18.
  • - 2013. Making Sense, Making Worlds: Constructivism in Social Theory and International

Relations. Abingdon and New York: Routledge.

Strange, Susan. 1988. States and Markets: An Introduction to International Political Economy. New York: Basil Blackwell.

Walker, R.B.J. 1993. Inside/Outside: International Relations as Political Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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