ADOPTION OF ICT OPERATIONS IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
From the modern educational viewpoint, there are two significant forms of ICT operations management being standardized for educational system e.g. Educational Management Information System (EMIS) and Learning Management System (LMS) (Nolan, 1997; Kats, 2013).
Operations Based on Educational Management Information System
Basically, EMIS is a significant part of operational management that collaborates various process, people, and advance computing process for furnishing precise information required to upgrade an effective operational management for educational system. There are two more contrast of EMIS operational technique e.g. Decision Support Information System (DSIS) (Aqdam & Bonab, 2014) and Statistical Information System (SIS) (Ellison, 2004). DSIS is responsible for carrying out data analysis of the stored data of operational management for any specific institution. However, SIS performs low-level statistical analysis on heuristic data. The standard components involved in the EMIS from the UNESCO report (2014) is shown in Figure 1.
The tools used for operating EMIS are cellular phones, tablet computers, Google Earth, Business Intelligence, Open Source Softwares, and internet (Bernbaum & Moses, 2011). Unfortunately, EMIS is still a hypothetical standard and is highly centralized in nature. The existing service delivery for educational resource require an operational process to be highly decentralized in nature and it is highly dependent on EMIS data to be i) highly reliable, ii) timely, iii) accurate, and iv) understandable. Majority of the existing techniques of operational management compromises the above four points as - Reliability factor is highly influenced by human resources and funding. Time factor can be tradeoff with reliability and accuracy. Moreover with the evolution of the various technologies e.g. clouds computing for decentralize data storage and optical network for high speed data rate, the operational management system for EMIS will need still more years to reformulate itself.
Figure 1. Essential components of EMIS