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REIs covered in this report
The questionnaire was drawn up by the OECD Science and Technology Policy Division Secretariat and project steering group.4 Delegates to the OECD Research Institutions and Human Resources (RIHR) working group distributed them to the appropriate expert(s) in their respective countries. Answers were received from 20 countries (Australia, Austria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Slovenia, Sweden, Turkey and the United States), as well as six German Lander (federal states), which described regional funding schemes run in parallel with Germany’s national REI.
The questionnaire also included a free-text category for countries that have considered or were considering introducing an REI. Turkey was the only country answering in this category. The responsible ministry is considering introducing a special funding programme for excellent research institutions in the areas of natural sciences, technology and engineering, based on experience in other countries.
Turkey aside, 56 different funding schemes were reported. However, not all reported funding schemes fulfilled the criteria that would identify them as REIs. Finally, 28 schemes from 18 countries (17 OECD countries and the Russian Federation) were classified as REIs. These 28 schemes represent the descriptive basis of the present chapter. All generalisations about REIs and statements regarding proportional shares in this study must be understood as confined to these REIs. A list of schemes that were reported but excluded is given in Annex 2.A1, with the reasons for exclusion.
Table 2.1 lists the 28 REIs discussed. The third column lists official acronyms (if they exist). If official acronyms exist, they are used in the text. The fourth column specifies the year in which funding through the REI started, and the fifth column states the maximum funding period for an individual research unit per funding cycle (the option of applying repeatedly in different cycles is not considered).
Table 2.1. Overview of REIs in responding countries
Table 2.1. Overview of REIs in responding countries (continued)
Note: 1. The COMET scheme is divided into funding lines; line “Kl” has a slightly different structure than line “K2”.
Source: OECD/RIHR questionnaire to government ministries, Q1.1: What is the organisational structure of REIs in your country? Q1.2: When were REIs first implemented in your country (i.e. received funding)?
It should be emphasised that this study does not claim to provide an exhaustive account of all REIs in OECD countries. Several countries have REIs that were discussed by the RIHR Working Party but are not included because they did not respond to the survey. They are:
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