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Description of REIs
The initial desk research on existing REIs found similarities among national schemes, but also specific differences to be captured through the questionnaire. These differences involved programme focus, selection regulations and processes, and structural characteristics (Figure 2.1). The following description of REIs is based on insights into these dimensions gained from the questionnaire results and the initial desk research. This section starts with a first look at the start dates for national REIs and their presence in OECD countries over time. Next it deals with programme focus, with selection and with structure. The section ends with information on REIs’ links to research and development policies, which also emerged from the survey results.
Figure 2.1. Dimensions in which REIs may differ
REI start dates and OECD coverage
REIs are a relatively new funding instrument. Figure 2.2 charts the development of the number of countries running REIs from 1989 to 2012 (including four other known countries that did not respond). The number of countries with REIs has clearly increased over time. Over half of the countries in the survey introduced REIs since 2006 and two- thirds of OECD countries now operate such schemes.
Figure 2.2. Share of OECD countries (plus the Russian Federation) with REIs, by start date
Note: Includes countries that did not respond to the survey, but have or have had REIs to the authors' knowledge, Canada, France, Luxembourg, Spain.
Source: OECD/RIHR questionnaire to government ministries, Q2.1: When were REIs first implemented in your country, i.e. received funding?
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