- 1. Even though they represent a large share of the sample, Japanese hosts do not drive the results significantly. To check robustness, the analysis was run without the Japanese hosts and the results differed only slightly from the whole sample. Whenever specific results obtained without Japanese hosts were found to differ substantially from the whole sample, the difference is noted in a footnote.
- 2. Funding data are converted using the OECD’s official statistics on purchasing power parities (PPP) for each country for the year 2001. See,.
http://stats.oecd.org/OECDStat Metadata/ShowMetadata.ashx?Dataset=SNA TABL E4&ShowOnWeb=true&Lang=en.
- 3. Japanese HIs significantly drive some of the results. When they are removed from the sample, the share of HIs that expect to receive more funding from its core funding body drops to 47%.
- 4. The results change significantly when Japanese HIs are dropped from the sample. The share of HIs that relieve researchers from administrative tasks drops from 53% to 39%.
- 5. The results change significantly when Japanese HIs are dropped from the sample. The share of HIs that relieve researchers from administrative tasks rises from 49% to 67%.
- 6. When Japanese HIs are removed from the sample, the average share of HIs’ total research budget allocated to CoEs’ activities increases to around 14%.
Benhabib, J. and M. Spiegel (2005), "Human Capital and Technology Diffusion", Chapter 13 in P. Aghion and S. Durlauf (eds.), Handbook of Economic Growth, Vol. 1, Elsevier, pp. 935-966.
Coe, D., E. Helpman and A. Hoffmaister (2009), "International R&D spillovers and institutions," European Economic Review, Vol. 53(7), pp. 723-741.
Coe, D. and E. Helpman (1995), “International R&D spillovers”, European Economic Review, Vol. 39, Issue 5, May, pp. 859-887.
Keller, W. (2004), "International Technology Diffusion," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, Vol. 42(3), pp. 752-782.