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  • 1. The San Diego Association of Governments has had a long-standing relationship with its counterparts across the border for regional planning purposes.
  • 2. For a full list of these issues, see Nauwelaers et al. (2013e).
  • 3. The European “smart specialisation” concept incorporates a cross-border dimension: “Smart specialisation strategies can ensure a more effective use of public funds and can stimulate private investment. They can help regions to concentrate resources on few key priorities rather than spreading investment thinly across areas and business sectors. They can also be a key element in developing multi-level governance for integrated innovation policies. Moreover they have to be closely linked with other policy domains and require an understanding of regional strengths relative to other regions and of the possible gain for inter-regional and trans-national cooperation ” (European Commission, 2012, emphasis added).
  • 4. For example, Trippl (2010) lists a range of favourable conditions for collaboration concerning the innovation system and its governance. Such conditions include: i) a strong knowledge infrastructure that is engaged with the needs of the regional economy; ii) “high road” development models; iii) complementarities in industrial structures and knowledge bases; iv) balanced cross-border relationships; v) similar cultural and institutional backgrounds; vi) similar national innovation system structures; and vii) stabilised and regionalised/federal political systems.
  • 5. In that sense, game theory offers an interesting framework for understanding the incentives for inter-regional collaboration. See, for example, Bartolini (2013).
  • 6. A register of EGTC is available online at the Committee of the Regions, providing information on these groupings. The Committee of the Regions also provides a regular monitoring of the development of EGTCs.
  • 7. For example, joint management of a natural park or a trans-border hospital.
  • 8. The so-called triple helix refers to the private sector, public sector and knowledge institutions, that are part of the innovation system. The term quadruple helix has been coined to add the civil society to the list. See, for example, Leydesdorff and Etzkowitz (1996).
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