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Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

Anthropology and the Social SciencesTHE CRAFT OF RESEARCHMETHODS BELONG TO ALL OF USEPISTEMOLOGY: WAYS OF KNOWINGRATIONALISM, EMPIRICISM, AND KANTRATIONALISM, EMPIRICISM, AND MORALITYTHE NORMS OF SCIENCETHE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE: FROM DEMOCRITUS TO NEWTONEXPLORATION, PRINTING, AND MODERN SCIENCEBacon and DescartesSCIENCE, MONEY, AND WARTHE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL SCIENCE: FROM NEWTON TO ROUSSEAUVoltaire, Condorcet, and RousseauEARLY POSITIVISM: QUETELET, SAINT-SIMON, COMTEComte's ExcessesThe Activist Legacy of Comte's PositivismTECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCESOCIAL SCIENCE FAILURESTHE VARIETIES OF POSITIVISMLATER POSITIVISM: THE VIENNA CIRCLEINSTRUMENTAL POSITIVISMTHE REACTION AGAINST POSITIVISMABOUT NUMBERS AND WORDS: THE QUALITATIVE/ QUANTITATIVE SPLITETHICS AND SOCIAL SCIENCEFURTHER READINGThe Foundations of Social ResearchTHE LANGUAGE OF SOCIAL RESEARCHVARIABLESVariables Have DimensionsSimplifying Variables: Race and GenderDependent and Independent VariablesMEASUREMENT AND CONCEPTSCONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONSCONCEPTUAL DEFINITIONSThe Concept of IntelligenceOPERATIONAL DEFINITIONSWhat's So Good about Operationism?The Problem with OperationismLEVELS OF MEASUREMENTNominal VariablesOrdinal VariablesInterval and Ratio VariablesA Rule about MeasurementUNITS OF ANALYSISA Rule about Units of AnalysisThe Ecological FallacyVALIDITY, RELIABILITY, ACCURACY, AND PRECISIONThe Validity of Instruments and DataThe Validity of FindingsDETERMINING VALIDITYFace ValidityContent ValidityConstruct ValidityCriterion Validity—The Gold StandardThe Bottom LineThe Problem with ValidityCAUSE AND EFFECTCondition 1: CovariationCondition 2: Lack of SpuriousnessCondition 3: Precedence, or Time OrderCondition 4: TheoryTHE KALYMNIAN CASEFURTHER READINGPreparing for ResearchSETTING THINGS UPTHE IDEAL RESEARCH PROCESSA REALISTIC APPROACHPersonal InterestScience Versus NonscienceETHICSMilgram's Obedience ExperimentWhat Does It All Mean?THEORY-EXPLANATION AND PREDICTIONAlternative Paradigms for Building TheoriesIdiographic and Nomothetic TheoryIdiographic TheorySo What's Wrong?Nomothetic TheoryOne More: The Second Demographic TransitionCOMPARATIVE RESEARCH AND TESTING THEORYThe Consequences of ParadigmA GUIDE TO RESEARCH TOPICS, ANYWAYGenerating of Types of StudiesTHE LITERATURE SEARCHThe ISI Web of KnowledgeANTHROPOLOGY DATABASESAnthroSource and JSTORAnthropology PlusFREE DATABASES OF RELEVANCE TO ANTHROPOLOGY ERICNTISMEDLINEOTHER DATABASESWEBSITESMETA-ANALYSISFURTHER READINGResearch Design: Experiments and Experimental ThinkingEXPERIMENTSThe Logic of True ExperimentsA WalkthroughKINDS OF CONFOUNDS: THREATS TO VALIDITYHistoryMaturationTesting and InstrumentationRegression to the MeanSelection of ParticipantsMortalityDiffusion of TreatmentsCONTROLLING FOR THREATS TO VALIDITYThe Classic Two-Group Pretest-Posttest Design with Random AssignmentThe Solomon Four-Group DesignThe Two-Group Pretest-Posttest without Random AssignmentThe Posttest-Only Design with Random AssignmentThe One-Shot Case StudyThe One-Group Pretest-PosttestThe Two-Group Posttest-Only Design without Random AssignmentInterrupted Time Series DesignTHOUGHT EXPERIMENTSTRUE EXPERIMENTS IN THE LABTRUE EXPERIMENTS IN THE FIELDNATURAL EXPERIMENTSNatural Experiments Are EverywhereTURNING A CONFOUND INTO A NATURAL EXPERIMENTNATURALISTIC EXPERIMENTSThe Small-World ExperimentThe Lost-Letter TechniqueCOMPARATIVE FIELD EXPERIMENTSARE FIELD EXPERIMENTS ETHICAL?THE WATERGATE EXPERIMENTFACTORIAL DESIGNS: MAIN EFFECTS AND INTERACTION EFFECTSFURTHER READINGSampling I: The BasicsWHAT ARE SAMPLES AND WHY DO WE NEED THEM?WHY THE UNITED STATES STILL HAS A CENSUSIT PAYS TO TAKE SAMPLES AND TO STICK WITH THEMSAMPLING FRAMESSIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLESSYSTEMATIC RANDOM SAMPLINGSampling from a Telephone BookSTRATIFIED SAMPLINGDisproportionate SamplingWeighting ResultsCLUSTER SAMPLING AND COMPLEX SAMPLING DESIGNSPROBABILITY PROPORTIONATE TO SIZEPPS Samples in the FieldMaximizing Between-Group Variance: The Wichita StudyHOW BIG SHOULD A SAMPLE BE?FURTHER READINGSampling II: TheoryDISTRIBUTIONSTHE NORMAL CURVE AND Z-SCORESTHE CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREMof the Central Limit Theoremof the Central Limit TheoremTHE STANDARD ERROR AND CONFIDENCE INTERVALSCalculating Sample Size for Estimating MeansSMALL SAMPLES: THE f-DISTRIBUTIONThe CatchCALCULATING SAMPLE SIZE FOR ESTIMATING PROPORTIONSEstimating Proportions in Samples for Smaller PopulationsAnother CatchFURTHER READINGSampling III: Nonprobability Samples and Choosing InformantsQUOTA SAMPLINGPURPOSIVE OR JUDGMENT SAMPLINGCONVENIENCE OR HAPHAZARD SAMPLINGCHAIN REFERRAL, OR NETWORK SAMPLING: THE SNOWBALL AND RDS METHODSRespondent-Driven SamplingCHOOSING INFORMANTSKEY INFORMANTSFinding Key InformantsInformants Sometimes LieSELECTING CULTURALLY SPECIALIZED INFORMANTSPoggie's Study of Ciudad IndustrialSAMPLE SIZE IN NONPROBABILITY SAMPLINGAND FINALLY . . .FURTHER READINGInterviewing I: Unstructured and SemistructuredTHE BIG PICTUREINTERVIEW CONTROLInformal InterviewingUnstructured InterviewingStructured InterviewingUNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEWINGA Case Study of Unstructured InterviewingGetting StartedLetting the Informant or Respondent LeadPROBINGThe Silent ProbeThe Echo ProbeThe Uh-huh ProbeThe Long Question ProbeProbing by LeadingBaiting: The Phased-Assertion ProbeVerbal RespondentsNonverbal RespondentsLEARNING TO INTERVIEWThe Importance of LanguagePacing the StudyPRESENTATION OF SELFOn Just Being YourselfLittle Things Mean a LotUSING A VOICE RECORDERRecording EquipmentTranscribers and VR softwareRecording Is Not a Substitute for Taking NotesFOCUS GROUPSWhy Are Focus Groups So Popular?Two Cases of Focus GroupsAre Focus Groups Valid?RUNNING A FOCUS GROUPAnalyzing Data from Focus GroupsRESPONSE EFFECTSThe Deference EffectThe Social Desirability EffectThe Third-Party-Present EffectThreatening QuestionsACCURACYLa Pierre Discovers the ProblemWhy People Are Inaccurate Reporters of Their Own BehaviorReducing Errors: Jogging Informants' MemoriesFURTHER READINGInterviewing II: QuestionnairesQUESTIONNAIRES AND SURVEY RESEARCHTHE COMPUTER REVOLUTION IN SURVEY RESEARCHADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SURVEY FORMATSPersonal, Face-to-Face InterviewsAdvantages of Face-to Face InterviewsDisadvantages of Face-to-Face InterviewsInterviewer-Absent Self-Administered QuestionnairesAdvantages of Self-Administered QuestionnairesDisadvantages of Self-Administered QuestionnairesTelephone InterviewsAdvantages of Telephone InterviewsDisadvantages of Telephone InterviewingWHEN TO USE WHATUSING INTERVIEWERSTraining InterviewersWhom to HireMake It Easy for Interviewers to Do Their JobCLOSED- VERSUS OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONSQUESTION WORDING AND FORMATPRETESTING AND LEARNING FROM MISTAKESTRANSLATION AND BACK TRANSLATIONTHE RESPONSE RATE PROBLEMHow to Adjust for NonresponseIMPROVING RESPONSE RATES: DILLMAN'S TOTAL DESIGN METHODSTEPS IN DILLMAN'S METHODDoes All This Really Make a Difference?CROSS-SECTIONAL AND LONGITUDINAL STUDIESPanel StudiesSOME SPECIALIZED SURVEY TECHNIQUES Factorial SurveysTime Budgets and DiariesRandomized ResponseMIXED METHODSFURTHER READINGInterviewing III: Cultural DomainsKINSHIP AND OTHER DOMAINSFREE LISTINGHOW SPRADLEY LEARNED TO NAVIGATE THE POLICE DEPARTMENTTHE TRUE-FALSE/YES-NO AND SENTENCE FRAME TECHNIQUESTRIAD TESTSThe Balanced Incomplete Block Design for Triad TestsFREE PILE SORTSAdministering a Pile SortThe P-3 GameThe Lumper-Splitter ProblemRANKINGS AND PAIRED COMPARISONSPaired ComparisonsFURTHER READINGScales and ScalingSIMPLE SCALES: SINGLE INDICATORSCOMPLEX SCALES: MULTIPLE INDICATORSINDEXESHow Indexes WorkGUTTMAN SCALESThe Coefficient of ReproducibilitySome Examples of a Guttman ScaleIndexes That Don't ScaleLIKERT SCALESSteps in Building a Likert ScaleItem AnalysisSplit Halves and the Combinations RuleTESTING FOR UNIDIMENSIONALITY WITH FACTOR ANALYSISVISUAL PROPS AS SCALESSemantic DifferentialCantril's Ladder of LifeThe Happiness StickVisual Props: The Faces ScaleAND FINALLYFURTHER READINGParticipant ObservationRomancing the MethodsWHAT IS PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION?SOME BACKGROUND AND HISTORYFIELDWORK ROLESHOW MUCH TIME DOES IT TAKE?Rapid AssessmentVALIDITY—AGAINENTERING THE FIELDTHE SKILLS OF A PARTICIPANT OBSERVERLearning the LanguageHow to Learn a New LanguageBuilding Explicit AwarenessBuilding MemoryMaintaining NaiveteBuilding Writing SkillsHanging Out, Gaining RapportObjectivityObjectivity and NeutralityGENDER, PARENTING, AND OTHER PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICSSEX AND FIELDWORKSURVIVING FIELDWORKTHE STAGES OF PARTICIPANT OBSERVATIONInitial ContactCulture ShockThe BreakFocusingLeaving the FieldTHE FRONT-EDGE: COMBINING METHODSFURTHER READINGField Notes and Database ManagementABOUT FIELD NOTESHOW TO WRITE FIELD NOTESFOUR TYPES OF FIELD NOTESThe DiaryThe LogFIELD NOTESMethodological NotesDescriptive NotesAnalytic NotesCODING FIELD NOTESTheme Codes: The OCMANALYZING FIELD NOTESDATABASE MANAGEMENTDirect and Indirect ObservationCM—CONTINUOUS MONITORINGETHOGRAMSCONTINUOUS MONITORING IN ANTHROPOLOGYThe Zapotec Children StudyThe Shopping StudyCODING CONTINUOUS MONITORING DATACoding SchemesCOMPARATIVE RESEARCH—THE SIX CULTURE STUDYUSING VIDEO FOR CONTINUOUS MONITORINGCM and ReactivitySPOT SAMPLING AND TIME ALLOCATION STUDIESReactivity in TA ResearchSAMPLING PROBLEMSSampling Table for TA StudiesNighttime SamplingCoding and Recording Time Allocation DataEXPERIENCE SAMPLINGCOMBINING CONTINUOUS MONITORING AND SPOT SAMPLINGPLUSES AND MINUSES OF DIRECT OBSERVATIONUNOBTRUSIVE OBSERVATIONPseudopatients and Simulated ClientsThe Tearoom Trade StudyGRADES OF DECEPTIONThe Micturition StudyPassive DeceptionBEHAVIOR TRACE STUDIESThe Garbage ProjectPros and Cons of Trace StudiesARCHIVAL RESEARCHCultural ProcessesThe Problem with Archival DataFURTHER READINGQUALITATIVE, QUANTITATIVEWHAT'S ANALYSIS?DATA PROCESSING AND DATA ANALYSISThe Constant Validity CheckDATA MATRICESProfile MatricesProximity MatricesPRESENTING RESULTS IN MATRICES AND TABLESPRESENTING RESULTS: CAUSAL FLOW CHARTSCognitive Anthropology I: Analyzing Cultural DomainsANALYZING FREE LISTSABOUT SKILLS IN DATA ANALYSISMeasuring the Salience of Free-List ItemsSelecting Items from a Free List for Further StudyANALYZING PILE SORT DATAANALYZING PILE SORT DATA: MDSHow MDS WorksInterpreting MDS GraphsAnalyzing Pile Sort Data: Aggregate MatricesCluster Analysis and Pile Sort DataHow Cluster Analysis WorksClusters of CitiesA REAL RESEARCH EXAMPLE: GREEN BEHAVIOR AND ELECTRIC CARS IN THE UNITED STATESANALYZING TRIAD DATAANALYZING SENTENCE FRAMESANALYZING PAIRED COMPARISONSCULTURAL CONSENSUS ANALYSISCULTURAL COMPETENCEWhen Agreement Equals Knowledge: Equation 1When Agreement Equals Knowledge: Equation 2Running Consensus AnalysisRetrieving the Answer Key to a TestMAKING UP QUESTIONS FOR A FORMAL CONSENSUS TESTThe Informal Model: Pile Sorts, Triad Tests, and Rank Ordered DataSelecting Domain-Specific InformantsCultural ConsonanceFURTHER READINGCognitive Anthropology II: Decision Modeling, Taxonomies, and Componential AnalysisETHNOGRAPHIC DECISION MODELSHow to Build EDMsTesting an EDM on a National SampleREPRESENTING COMPLICATED MODELS WITH TABLES AND IF-THEN CHARTS Young and Garro's EDM: Decision TablesFOLK TAXONOMIESCovert CategoriesCultural Domains and Folk TaxonomiesHow to Make a Taxonomy: Pile SortsHow to Make a Taxonomy: Lists and FramesThings to Look for in Folk TaxonomiesCOMPONENTIAL ANALYSISPROBLEMS WITH COMPONENTIAL ANALYSISFURTHER READINGText Analysis I: Interpretive Analysis, Narrative Analysis, Performance Analysis, and Conversation AnalysisTEXT ARE USNative EthnographyThe Nahnu Native EthnographyWolcott's Critique of Native EthnographyOther Kinds of Native EthnographyINTERPRETIVE ANALYSISNARRATIVE ANALYSISPERFORMANCE ANALYSIS: ETHNOPOETICSTedlock's Study of the Popol VuhSherzer's Study of Kuna ChantsTRANSLATIONS AS TEXTSDISCOURSE ANALYSISConversation AnalysisTaking TurnsAdjacency PairsFURTHER READINGText Analysis II: Schema Analysis, Grounded Theory, Content Analysis, and Analytic InductionCoding ThemesHow to Find ThemesMore Techniques for Finding ThemesKurasaki's and Nyamongo's CodebooksGROUNDED THEORYLinking Themes and Building Conceptual Models by MemoingKearney et al.'s Study of Pregnant Women Who Use CrackUsing Exemplar QuotesSCHEMAS, MODELS, AND METAPHORSThree Examples of Schema AnalysisThe American marriage schemaThe Trobriand Land Dispute SchemaThe Mexican Folktale SchemaCONTENT ANALYSISSampling in Content AnalysisCoding in Content AnalysisINTERCODER RELIABILITYHRAF: CROSS-CULTURAL CONTENT ANALYSISDoing Cross-Cultural Text-Based ResearchSampling and Galton's ProblemCODING IN HRAFOther ProblemsANALYTIC INDUCTIONCOMPUTERS AND TEXT ANALYSISUnivariate AnalysisCODING AND CODEBOOKS FOR QUANTITATIVE DATACodingBuilding CodebooksCleaning DataRAW DATAFREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONSUsing a Distribution TableMEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCYCENTRAL TENDENCY: THE MODEUsing the ModeCENTRAL TENDENCY: THE MEDIANThe Median of Grouped DataCENTRAL TENDENCY: THE MEANCalculating the Mean of Grouped DataA Mathematical Feature of the MeanSHAPE: VISUALIZING DISTRIBUTIONSBar Graphs and Pie ChartsStem-and-Leaf PlotsDistributions AgainBox-and-Whisker PlotsHistograms and Frequency PolygonsBimodal DistributionsMEASURES OF DISPERSION I: RANGE AND INTERQUARTILE RANGEMEASURES OF DISPERSION II: VARIANCE AND THE STANDARD DEVIATIONTHE LOGIC OF HYPOTHESIS TESTINGType I and Type II ErrorsSO, WHAT ABOUT THE MEAN OF FEMILLIT?Testing the Value of tTesting the Mean of Large SamplesMORE ABOUT z-SCORESWhy Use Standard Scores?THE UNIVARIATE CHI-SQUARE TESTFinding the Significance of x2FURTHER READINGBivariate Analysis: Testing RelationsTHE f-TEST: COMPARING TWO MEANSANALYSIS OF VARIANCEExamples of ANOVADIRECTION AND SHAPE OF COVARIATIONSLinear and Nonlinear RelationsCROSS-TABS OF NOMINAL VARIABLESConventions for Displaying Bivariate TablesLAMBDA AND THE PRE PRINCIPLECHI-SQUARECALCULATING x2Calculating the Expected Frequencies for x2 in Bivariate TablesTHE SPECIAL CASE OF THE 2 X 2 TABLETHE ODDS RATIOFISHER'S EXACT TESTGAMMA: THE ALL-PURPOSE PRE MEASURE OF ASSOCIATION FOR ORDINAL VARIABLESCalculating the Pairs for GIS G SIGNIFICANT?KENDALL'S TbWHAT TO USE FOR NOMINAL AND ORDINAL VARIABLESCORRELATION: THE POWERHOUSE STATISTIC FOR COVARIATIONSPEARMAN'S rPEARSON'S rThe Sums of the Squared Distances to the MeanDrawing the Regression LineHOW REGRESSION WORKSCALCULATING r AND r2Accounting for VarianceTESTING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF rNONLINEAR RELATIONSCALCULATING ETA-SQUAREDSTATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE, THE SHOTGUN APPROACH, AND OTHER ISSUESMeasurement and Statistical AssumptionsEliminating the OutliersTests of SignificanceThe Bonferroni CorrectionStatistical PowerThe Shotgun ApproachTHE PROBLEM WITH THE SHOTGUN APPROACHFURTHER READINGMultivariate AnalysisELABORATION: CONTROLLING FOR INDEPENDENT VARIABLESBUILDING TABLESREADING A COMPLEX TABLEPARTIAL CORRELATIONMULTIPLE REGRESSIONThe Multiple Regression EquationThe MVD-TEENBIRTH PuzzleDetails of the Regression EquationEXAMPLES OF MULTIPLE REGRESSIONOn Explaining Just a Little of SomethingPATH ANALYSISMULTICOLLINEARITYFACTOR ANALYSISFactor Analysis and ScalesHandwerker's Domestic Cooperation ScaleDISCRIMINANT FUNCTION ANALYSISAND FINALLY . . .
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