Home Economics American Trypanosomiasis Chagas Disease, Second Edition: One Hundred Years of Research
Oceania and Asia
Australia has an estimated 80,579 Latin American immigrants with an estimated 1392 cases of T. cruzi infection. Japan accommodates some 371,700 people from Chagas-endemic regions, 84% of whom are from Brazil with an estimated 3592 T. cruzi-infected residents.77 These immigrants represent the descendants of people that migrated to Brazil in the early 20th century to work on coffee plantations. The 1980s saw a reversal of this migration back to Japan. In Brazil, these immigrant Japanese were called dekasseguis, and now more than 300,000 dekasseguis Brazilians live in Japan.76 Several cases of Chagas cardiomyopathy have been reported in Brazilian immigrants in Japan78,79 (Fig. 5.4).
From a recent update of the epidemiological information on Chagas disease from the 21 Latin American countries,65 based on the available 2010 demographic and epidemiologic information, with the direct participation of their governmental, academic, and scientific institutions, for each country, the following demographic and epidemiologic data were compiled:
(1) Population by country; (2) Annual number of births by country; (3) Estimated number of people infected with T. cruzi; (4) Estimated annual number of new cases of T. cruzi infection due to vectorial transmission; (5) Estimated number of women aged 15—44 years with T. cruzi infection; (6) Estimated annual number of cases of T. cruzi infection due to congenital transmission; (7) Estimated prevalence of T. cruzi infection per 100 habitants; (8) Estimated incidence due to vectorial transmission per 100 habitants; (9) Estimated incidence of T. cruzi infection due to congenital transmission per 100 live births; (10) Estimated population at
Figure 5.4 Global distribution of cases of Chagas disease based on official estimates and status of vector transmission.
risk of T. cruzi infection due to the existence of domicile infestation or active transmission of infection in the country; (11) Estimated number of people with Chagasic cardiopathy; (12) Estimated prevalence of T. cruzi infection among blood donors (Table 5.1).
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