Desktop version

Home arrow Business & Finance arrow Globalisation, comparative advantage and the changing dynamics of trade


  • 1. Head of Policies, Trade and Agriculture Division, Trade and Agriculture Directorate, OECD. The author gratefully acknowledges the contributions made by Martin Clever, Barbara Fliess, Jeonghoi Kim, Jane Korinek, Tarja Mard and Silvia Sorescu. This chapter draws on completed (OECD, 2010a) and ongoing OECD work on export restrictions on raw materials.
  • 2. This case deals with the relation between export restrictions and subsidy. The question was whether US regulations that treat a restraint on exports of a product as a subsidy to other products made using or incorporating the restricted product was consistent with the WTO SCM Agreement (WT/DS194/R).
  • 3. These figures are taken from the latest available WTO Trade Policy Reviews.
  • 4. In addition, OECD (2010b) documents new export restrictions and removal of export restrictions as policy responses to the economic crisis.


Bouet, A. and D. Laborde Debucquet (2010), “The economics of export taxes in the context of food security,” in OECD (2010a), The Economic Impact of Export Restrictions on Raw Materials, OECD, Paris,

Government of the People’s Republic of China (2011), “State Council Guideline to Promote Healthy Development of Rare earths Industry”, Guo Fa [2011] No.12. 05/19/content_1866997.htm.

Commission of the European Communities (2008), The raw materials initiative - meeting our critical needs for growth and jobs in Europe, COM(2008) 699 and SEC(2008) 2741, Brussels, 4 November.

Corden, W.M. (1997), Trade Policy and Economic Welfare, Second Edition, Clarendon Press, London.

Harrison, A. and A. Rodrfguez-Clare (2010), “Trade, Foreign Investment, and Industrial Policy for Developing Countries” in D. Rodrik and M. Rosenzweig (eds.), Handbook for Development Economics, North Holland.

Indicus Analytics (2009), Public Enterprise, Government policy and impact on competition - Final report for the Competition Commission of India, New Delhi, India.

International Chromium Development Association (2009), Statistical Bulletin, International Chromium Development Association.

Korinek, J, and J. Kim, “Export Restrictions on Strategic Raw Materials and Their Impact on Trade and Global Supply”, in OECD (2010), The Economic Impact of Export Restrictions on Raw Materials, OECD, Paris.

Melitz, M.J. (2005), “When should infant industries be protected?” Journal of International Economics, Vol. 66, pp. 177-197.

OECD (2010a), The economic impact of export restrictions on raw materials, OECD, Paris.

OECD (2010b), Trade and economic effects of responses to the economic crisis. OECD, Paris.

OECD (2009), Agricultural Policies in Emerging Economies 2009: Monitoring and Evaluation, OECD, Paris.

OECD (2003), “Analysis of non-tariff measures: the case of export restrictions”, TD/TC/WP(2003)7/FINAL, OECD, Paris.

Price, A.H. and D.S. Nance (2010), “Export Barriers and the Steel Industry”, Chapter 3 in OECD (2010a).

Rodrfguez-Clare, A. (2007), Clusters and comparative advantage: Implications for industrial policy, Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 82, pp. 43- 57.

Rodrik, D. (2008), “Normalizing Industrial Policy”, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The Wold Bank, Working Paper No. 3 of the Commission on Growth and Development, Washington.

Tilton, J.E. (1992), “Mineral endowment, public policy and competitiveness”, Resources Policy, December, pp. 237-249.

United States Geological Survey, Minerals Yearbook, various metals and minerals, various years,

World Trade Organisation (2001), United States - Measures treating export restraints as subsidies, Report of the Panel (WT/DS194/R)

World Trade Organisation (2010), World Trade Report 2010, Geneva.

World Trade Organisation (2003-2010), Trade Policy Reviews, Geneva.

< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >