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Fiduciaries of humanity : how international law constitutes authority

The Fiduciary Character of SovereigntyI. INTRODUCTIONII. THE CLASSICAL MODEL OF SOVEREIGNTYIII. FROM CLASSICAL SOVEREIGNTY TO RELATIONAL SOVEREIGNTYIV. THE FIDUCIARY MODEL OF SOVEREIGNTYV. THE LEGAL STRUCTURE OF FIDUCIARY RELATIONSHIPSVI. THE MORAL FOUNDATIONS OF FIDUCIARY OBLIGATIONVII. A KANTIAN THEORY OF FIDUCIARY SOVEREIGNTYVIII. LOCKEAN AND RAZIAN THEORIES OF FIDUCIARY SOVEREIGNTYIX. THE FIDUCIARY CONSTITUTION OF INTERNATIONAL LAWX. SUMMARY OF THE ARGUMENTCreating Fiduciary StatesI. INTRODUCTIONII. CONSTITUTING FIDUCIARY STATESA. What Is a State?B. The Fiduciary Theory of StatehoodIII. DISTRIBUTING SOVEREIGNTYA. International Law’s Distribution of Sovereignty over TimeB. Self-Determination and Fiduciary RepresentationC. Objections to the Emerging Fiduciary Model of SovereigntyIV. RECOGNIZING FIDUCIARY STATESV. A DELIBERATIVE THEORY OF STATE RECOGNITIONVI. CONCLUSIONHuman Rights and Jus CogensI. INTRODUCTIONII. DEVELOPING JUS COGENS AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAWIII. IN SEARCH OF A THEORYA. Consent TheoriesB. Natural Law TheoriesC. Public Order TheoriesD. Human Rights TheoriesIV. FIDUCIARY STATES AND INTERNATIONAL NORMSA. An Institutional ConceptionB. A Fullerian Legal ConceptionC. A Kantian Nonpositivist ConceptionD. A Republican ConceptionE. A Practical, Universal, and Aspirational ConceptionF. A Deliberative ConceptionV. THE QUESTIONS REVISITEDA. In What Sense Are Human Rights Rights?B. Do Human Rights Constitute Legal Rights, as Distinguished from Moral or Political Rights?C. How Does the Fiduciary Theory Provide Guidance for Identifying International Norms, Distinguishing Peremptory from Nonperemptory Norms, and Clarifying Their Scope?D. What Is the Relationship between International Norms and State Lawmaking Authority?E. Do Human Rights Generate Positive Duties, Such as a Duty to Provide Education, in Addition to Negative Duties of Non-interference?F. Do International Norms Generate Duties for Both State and Nonstate Actors?G. Are Human Rights and Jus Cogens Culturally Relative or Universal?VI. OBJECTIONS TO THE FIDUCIARY THEORYVII. CONCLUSIONEmergenciesI. INTRODUCTIONII. INTERNATIONAL LAW’S EMERGENCY CONSTITUTIONIII. FIDUCIARY STATES, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND EMERGENCIESA. The Content and Consequences of Jus ad TumultumB. The Content and Consequences of Jus in TumultuIV. CARL SCHMITT’S CHALLENGEV. THE FIDUCIARY THEORY’S RESPONSEVI. THE ROLE OF COURTS AND INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONSA. Calibrating Deference to National AuthoritiesB. The Limits of Interest BalancingC. The Distinctive Role of International Law and InstitutionsVII. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAW AND POWERVIII. CONCLUSIONArmed ConflictI. INTRODUCTIONII. FIDUCIARY STATES’ RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECTIII. FIDUCIARY REALISMIV. STATES AS FIDUCIARIES OF HUMANITYV. INTERNATIONAL ARMED CONFLICTVI. INTERNAL ARMED CONFLICTVII. ASYMMETRIC SELF-DEFENSEA. Jus ad BellumB. Jus in BelloVIII. OCCUPATIONIX. HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTIONX. CONCLUSIONDetaining Foreign NationalsI. INTRODUCTIONII. A FIDUCIARY ACCOUNT OF COMBATANT DETENTIONIII. THE GENEVA CONVENTIONSA. History and JustificationB. Positive ObligationsC. The Question of ScopeIV. BLACK HOLESA. Enhanced-Interrogation TechniquesB. Avoiding GenevaC. From De Facto Power to LawV. THE PROBLEM OF CLASSIFIED EVIDENCEVI. CONCLUSIONThe Right to RefugeI. INTRODUCTIONII. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL REFUGEE LAWIII. HUMANITARIANISM, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND TERRITORYIV. A FIDUCIARY INTERPRETATION OF INTERNATIONAL REFUGEE LAWV. CONCLUSIONInternational Institutions as Fiduciaries of HumanityI. INTRODUCTIONII. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AS INDIRECT FIDUCIARIES OF HUMANITYA. EmpowermentB. ConstraintC. International AdjudicationIII. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AS DIRECT FIDUCIARIES OF HUMANITYA. PeacekeepingB. State-Building and International Territorial AdministrationC. International Institutions and IndividualsUNHCR and Protracted Refugee SituationsInternational Representation of PersonnelU.N. Targeted Sanctions ProgramIV. THE AUTHORITY AND OBLIGATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONSA. Human Rights Obligations of International InstitutionsB. The Authority of International CourtsC. The Authority and Obligations of Transnational InstitutionsV. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC INSTITUTIONSA. Inter-State DisputesB. Disputes between States and Their NationalsC. Disputes between States and Foreign NationalsVI. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

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