At the Frontier Edge
Regional Changes in Khosko Toro
Cuzcotuyo was one of the most important fortresses of the Southeastern Inka frontier directly engaged in a series of confrontations with the Guarani-Chiriguano tribes. It is located on the Khosko Toro mountain, which sits approximately 80 km east of the Oroncota Valley. Therefore, this region is at the easternmost margin of the frontier. To further analyze the Inka effects in the configuration of this frontier zone, this chapter explores the regional settlement shifts at its margins. As in Oroncota, the pedestrian survey around the main Cuzcotuyo building complex was conducted in a radius of 5 km (roughly 80 km2), a minimum of one day’s walk. Through the survey, we wanted to assess the changes in function of the main Inka facilities and their role in the indigenous settlement dynamics. A comparison of the distribution of the cultural materials with Inka and lowland affiliations across sites allowed us to understand the complex forms of interaction in the region. Before turning to this discussion, let me briefly describe the regional ecology and relevant ethnohistory.