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The Late Parapeti Ungulate Inka Period (A.D. 1480-1536)

This second period marks the Inka arrival and the resulting conquest of the region around the sixteenth century. This change is associated with significant shifts in the settlement pattern, including the construction of the Cuzcotuyo stronghold. In fact, all settlements of this period were Inka and dedicated to defense. They fulfilled a variety of support roles such as outposts, perimeter walls, walled hills, and military barracks. A total of eleven sites were found in the surveyed region dating to this period. They varied in size, and it is likely that this variation reflected functional differences rather than political or economic hierarchies (Table 6.2).

Table 6.2. Distribution of ancient settlements by size and function during the Inka period (Khosko Toro region)



Architectural Remains



0.173 ha

Extensive wall on the Cuz- cotuyo mountaintop

Defense, control


0.25 ha

Wall segment and outpost

Defense, control


0.20 ha

Long structure along the road

Observatory post


0.003 ha

Single circular structure

Observatory post (or storage)

5 (a-d)

6.75 ha

Perimeter wall on a hill, outposts

Defense (Pucara plain)


0.003 ha

Artifacts scatter & grinding stone next to the road

Food processing, grinding


4.68 ha

Main complex



0.15 ha

Road segment, bifurcation



0.002 ha

Piece of a perimeter wall



0.003 ha

Wall segment

Possible defense


0.40 ha



As can be observed in Table 6.1, all the sites were in the western flank of the Khosko Toro mountain range. This pattern suggests that the Inka preferred to locate their settlements in this zone, for two main reasons. It could be that a strategic location facilitated the defense of the frontier fortifications and therefore avoided unnecessary entanglement with Guaram-Chiriguano raiders coming from the east. Another explanation relates to the agricultural productivity of the western plains, considering that this area is less forested and has more accessibility to irrigable land.

Although there was a relative increase in the number of sites in comparison with the earlier period (from two to eleven sites), this change did not involve major population growth. No new local sites with indigenous Manchachi Slate on Red pottery or associated materials were found indicative of an endogenous settlement increase or a population influx. Instead, most of the new settlements were intrusive Inka settlements in light of their defensive architecture. Therefore, the Cuzcotuyo complex was not a major center of local population attraction, nor did the native inhabitants see any particular incentive for populating the forested mountain after the Inka arrival. Instead, the early settlement pattern, characterized by a sparse distribution, persisted after the Inka arrival.

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