Ceramic Distribution: Inka and Chiriguano Pottery
The ways in which Inka imperial pottery was used and distributed in the farther provinces and frontier regions provide an opportunity to explore the state interference in the regional political economies. In Khosko Toro, no Inka ceramics of any style (Inka Cuzco or regional Inka) were recovered in the entire region. This absence, even in the Inka installations, deserves an explanation. Although it is feasible that the scarcity of surface material might have prevented pottery recovery, it is also likely that Inka materials were rare and therefore did not circulate widely. The lack of regional ceramics ascribing to Inka aesthetics, such as those mixing Inka and regional styles, also indicates that the natives did not decide to copy or adhere to Inka imperial canons. This finding signals that despite the fact that the fortification was constructed following Inka canons, its inhabitants did not necessarily use or consume Inka ceramics to advertise their affiliation to the state.
As for Guarani-Chiriguano-related ceramics, the pedestrian survey revealed no materials. This situation is important to highlight, considering the ethnohistorically documented Chiriguano advances in the region. This absence points to the low demographic levels of the Khosko Toro mountain, or that the invaders did not bring with them portable materials like pottery.