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The Absence of Yampara Ceramics

Although Cuzcotuyo is located only around 80 km east of Oroncota “as the crow flies," we did not find decorated Yampara pottery in the Cuzcotuyo complex. Nor was Yampara pottery found in the adjacent local settlements. One exception was the region of Padilla, 40 km to the north, where the locals seemingly used Yampara wares. Therefore, this indicates the absence of Yampara populations in the Khosko Toro region or the limited trading relations with this polity. Therefore, the claims found in ethnohistorical records stating that the sixteenth-century Yampara chief Francisco Aymoro controlled this outpost can be explained in different ways (Barragan Romano 1994). One possibility is that even though Ay- moro had the administrative jurisdiction of Cuzcotuyo, the fortress was actually manned by native frontier allies. Admittedly less likely, it is also feasible that the local Manchachi Slate on Red pottery was stylistically associated with the rare Yampara Red style (Portugal Loayza 2008).

Altogether, the spatial distribution of the distinct ceramic styles in the stronghold is useful to reconstruct the presence of social segments that consumed different wares. First, the indigenous residents of the Cuzcotuyo stronghold used local pottery in the Manchachi Slate on Red style. Along with these indigenous warriors, the presence of altiplanic pottery in the military barrack suggests either the presence of foreign soldiers or that a privileged segment had access to those exotic wares. In the second Inka period, as part of the increased episodes of violence and confrontation, the presence of Guarani pottery in the plaza indicates that the state redirected efforts to incorporate selected Guaram-Chiriguano factions through celebration as part of the frontier diplomacy. Alternatively, it is

Table 7.5. Cuzcotuyo Inka complex, distribution of lithic remains by function

Lithic tool

Main building

Attached facilities




Worked stone (undefined)



Grinding stone (mano)












also possible that the state intensified trading relations with some of these groups.

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