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Behavioral Modelling and Predistortion of Wideband Wireless Transmitters

PrefaceCharacterization of Wireless Transmitter DistortionsIntroductionRF Power Amplifier NonlinearityInter-Modulation Distortion and Spectrum RegrowthImpact of Distortions on Transmitter PerformancesOutput Power versus Input Power CharacteristicAM/AM and AM/PM CharacteristicsdB Compression PointThird and Fifth Order Intercept PointsCarrier to Inter-Modulation Distortion RatioAdjacent Channel Leakage RatioError Vector MagnitudeReferencesDynamic Nonlinear SystemsClassification of Nonlinear SystemsMemoryless SystemsSystems with MemoryMemory in Microwave Power Amplification SystemsNonlinear Systems without MemoryWeakly Nonlinear and Quasi-Memoryless SystemsNonlinear System with MemoryBaseband and Low-Pass Equivalent SignalsOrigins and Types of Memory Effects in Power Amplification SystemsOrigins of Memory EffectsElectrical Memory EffectsThermal Memory EffectsVolterra Series ModelsReferencesModel Performance EvaluationIntroductionBehavioral Modeling versus Digital PredistortionTime Domain MetricsNormalized Mean Square ErrorMemory Effects Modeling RatioFrequency Domain MetricsFrequency Domain Normalized Mean Square ErrorAdjacent Channel Error Power RatioWeighted Error Spectrum Power RatioNormalized Absolute Mean Spectrum ErrorStatic Nonlinearity Cancelation TechniquesStatic Nonlinearity Pre-Compensation TechniqueStatic Nonlinearity Post-Compensation TechniqueMemory Effect IntensityDiscussion and ConclusionReferencesQuasi-Memoryless Behavioral ModelsIntroductionModeling and Simulation of Memoryless/Quasi-Memoryless Nonlinear SystemsBandpass to Baseband Equivalent TransformationLook-Up Table ModelsUniformly Indexed Loop-Up TablesNon-Uniformly Indexed Look-Up TablesGeneric Nonlinear Amplifier Behavioral ModelEmpirical Analytical Based ModelsPolar Saleh ModelCartesian Saleh ModelFrequency-Dependent Saleh ModelGhorbani ModelBerman and Mahle Phase ModelThomas-Weidner-Durrani Amplitude ModelLimiter ModelARCTAN ModelRapp ModelWhite ModelPower Series ModelsPolynomial ModelBessel Function Based ModelChebyshev Series Based ModelGegenbauer Polynomials Based ModelZernike Polynomials Based ModelReferencesMemory Polynomial Based ModelsIntroductionGeneric Memory Polynomial Model FormulationMemory Polynomial ModelVariants of the Memory Polynomial ModelOrthogonal Memory Polynomial ModelSparse-Delay Memory Polynomial ModelExponentially Shaped Memory Delay Profile Memory Polynomial ModelNon-Uniform Memory Polynomial ModelUnstructured Memory Polynomial ModelEnvelope Memory Polynomial ModelGeneralized Memory Polynomial ModelHybrid Memory Polynomial ModelDynamic Deviation Reduction Volterra ModelComparison and DiscussionReferencesBox-Oriented ModelsIntroductionHammerstein and Wiener ModelsWiener ModelHammerstein ModelAugmented Hammerstein and Weiner ModelsAugmented Wiener ModelAugmented Hammerstein ModelThree-Box Wiener-Hammerstein ModelsWiener-Hammerstein ModelHammerstein-Wiener ModelFeedforward Hammerstein ModelTwo-Box Polynomial ModelsModels’DescriptionsIdentification ProcedureThree-Box Polynomial ModelsParallel Three-Blocks Model: PLUME ModelThree Layered Biased Memory Polynomial ModelRational Function Model for AmplifiersPolynomial Based Model with I/Q and DC ImpairmentsParallel Hammerstein (PH) Based Model for the Alleviation of Various Imperfections in Direct Conversion TransmittersTwo-Box Model with I/Q and DC ImpairmentsReferencesNeural Network Based ModelsIntroductionBasics of Neural NetworksNeural Networks Architecture for Modeling of Complex Static SystemsSingle-Input Single-Output Feedforward Neural Network (SISO-FFNN)Dual-Input Dual-Output Feedforward Neural Network (DIDO-FFNN)Dual-Input Dual-Output Coupled Cartesian Based Neural Network (DIDO-CC-NN)Neural Networks Architecture for Modeling of Complex Dynamic SystemsComplex Time-Delay Recurrent Neural Network (CTDRNN)Complex Time-Delay Neural Network (CTDNN)Real Valued Time-Delay Recurrent Neural Network (RVTDRNN)Real Valued Time-Delay Neural Network (RVTDNN)Training AlgorithmsConclusionReferencesCharacterization and Identification TechniquesIntroductionTest Signals for Power Amplifier and Transmitter CharacterizationCharacterization Using Continuous Wave SignalsCharacterization Using Two-Tone SignalsCharacterization Using Multi-Tone SignalsCharacterization Using Modulated SignalsCharacterization Using Synthetic Modulated SignalsDiscussion: Impact of Test Signal on the Measured AM/AM and AM/PM CharacteristicsData De-Embedding in Modulated Signal Based CharacterizationIdentification TechniquesMoving Average TechniquesModel Coefficient Extraction TechniquesThe LMS AlgorithmThe RLS AlgorithmRobustness of System Identification AlgorithmsThe LS AlgorithmThe LMS AlgorithmThe RLS AlgorithmConclusionsReferencesBaseband Digital PredistortionThe Predistortion ConceptAdaptive Digital PredistortionClosed Loop Adaptive Digital PredistortersOpen Loop Adaptive Digital PredistortersThe Predistorter’s Power Range in Indirect Learning ArchitecturesConstant Peak Power TechniqueConstant Average Power TechniqueSynergetic CFR and DPD TechniqueSmall Signal Gain NormalizationDigital Predistortion ImplementationsBaseband Digital PredistortionRF Digital PredistortionThe Bandwidth and Power Scalable Digital Predistortion TechniqueSummaryReferencesAdvanced Modeling and Digital PredistortionJoint Quadrature Impairment and Nonlinear Distortion Compensation Using Multi-Input DPDModeling of Quadrature Modulator ImperfectionsDual-Input Polynomial Model for Memoryless Joint Modeling of Quadrature Imbalance and PA DistortionsDual-Input Memory Polynomial for Joint Modeling of Quadrature Imbalance and PA Distortions Including Memory EffectsDual-Branch Parallel Hammerstein Model for Joint Modeling of Quadrature Imbalance and PA Distortions with MemoryDual-Conjugate-Input Memory Polynomial for Joint Modeling of Quadrature Imbalance and PA Distortions Including Memory EffectsModeling and Linearization of Nonlinear MIMO SystemsImpairments in MIMO SystemsLinear or Antenna CrosstalkNonlinear CrosstalkCrossover Polynomial Model for MIMO TransmittersDual-Input Nonlinear Polynomial Model for MIMO TransmittersMIMO Transmitters Nonlinear Multi-Variable Polynomial ModelDual-Input Memoryless ModelN-Input Memoryless ModelN-Input Memory ModelModeling and Linearization of Dual-Band TransmittersGeneralization of the Polynomial Model to the Dual-Band CaseTwo-Dimensional (2-D) Memory Polynomial Model for Ducl-Bcnd TransmittersPhase-Aligned Multi-Band Volterra DPDApplication of MIMO and Dual-Band Models in Digital PredistortionLinearization ofMIMO Systems with Nonlinear CrosstalkLinearization of Concurrent Dual-Band Transmitters Using a 2-D Memory Polynomial ModelLinearization of Concurrent Tri-Band Transmitters Using 3-D Phase-Aligned Volterra ModelReferences

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