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Facility: A Medium-Sized Simple Petroleum Refinery

Commissioned in the late 1960s, this was a medium-sized, simple (hydro- skimming) refinery. Together with primary distillation capability, it had a platinum reforming unit to obtain high octane naphtha and hydrogen for its hydro-treating processes. A short period before the events described in this book, a refrigerated liquefied petroleum gas storage and export facility had been constructed and added to the refinery assets. As the country has very high literacy, the refinery had a well-educated work force. Traditionally, the population is highly skilled in crafts and people are proud of their handiwork. The value system also includes respect for elders, obedience to authority, and help and support to one another within the community.

Facility: A Regional Oil Company Operating Refineries and Downstream Operations

The company operated four refineries located in various parts of the country as well as a national marketing network. All refineries processed imported crude oil. The refineries ranged from medium-sized, semi-complex to large complex units. Between them, they had a full range of petroleum refining process plants, with sophisticated, state-of-the-art process control systems. Although the region was technologically very advanced, they did not apply sophisticated computerized methods to refinery maintenance. The refineries functioned with very hierarchical organizations in which communication was strictly via the official chain of command.

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