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Principle 2—Maintenance is a Business Process, Not Just a Department

This principle attempted to break down departmental barriers and promote team spirit. The general message was that Maintenance, as defined in Principle #1, was a business process which transcended departmental boundaries. Unless all participants in the process—namely, operators, technologists, inspectors, and maintainers—worked as a team, the process would not perform optimally.

Explained in this manner, the principle met little resistance and was readily accepted. The best measure of this was that representatives of all the disChanging Paradigms 33

ciplines started attending morning meetings in the main control room. In these meetings we reviewed the events in the past 24 hours and decided actions needed.

Principle 3—Contractors are Essential Partners in the Enterprise

It was not optimal to carry all the manpower required to do maintenance work using our own payroll. This was because of two main reasons. First, the work load varied a lot. Second, not all skills were required all the time.

Therefore, this refinery, like most of process industry, carried a base-load manpower on its payroll and did peak-shaving using contractors. In our case, the peak manpower, annualized by averaging over the shutdown cycle, was about 30% more than the base manpower. Individual peaks were many times more. Thus, contractors were major participants in the maintenance process; unless they felt part of the team, their performance could not be optimal.

This principle also found ready acceptance except from the Finance function. They needed further convincing that there were sufficient checks in place to prevent malpractice when contractors' personnel worked as a team with refinery personnel.

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