Desktop version

Home arrow Language & Literature arrow Linguistic ethnography : interdisciplinary explorations


The EPR and its complex web of socio-political and institutional relationships presents the researcher with some tricky challenges. One possible response is to render it more 'simple' (by, for example, focusing on the computer as a 'black box'), turning a blind eye to some of the inherent complexity. An alternative response is to seek out ways of embracing and investigating this complexity explicitly - linguistic ethnography offers one such approach. It has not been my intention to describe my methods, methodology and conceptual framework in full detail here. However, I hope I have succeeded in drawing attention to the nature of the analytic challenges raised by the EPR, and have made a persuasive case for considering the EPR not as 'computer' or 'data container' but as ongoing social practice which shapes care (and is shaped by it) both in the micro-detail of the interaction and more widely in general practice organisations.


Atkinson, J. M. & Heritage, J. (1984) 'Transcript notation,' In Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversation Analysis, J. M. Atkinson & J. Heritage, eds., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. ix-xvi.

Bailey, J. (2008) First steps in qualitative data analysis: transcribing. Family Practice, 25, 127-131.

Bakhtin, M. (1981) 'Discourse in the Novel,' In The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin, M. Holquist, ed., Austin: University of Texas Press, pp. 259-422.

Bakhtin, M. (1986) Speech Genres and Other Late Essays Austin, University of Texas Press.

Blommaert, J. (2005a) Discourse Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Blommaert, J. (2005b) 'Language and Inequality,' In Discourse, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 68-97.

Blommaert, J. (2006) 'Sociolinguistic scales,' In Working Papers in Urban Language & Literacies, Paper 37, Institute of Education.

Blommaert, J., Collins, J. & Slembrouck, S. (2005) Polycentricity and interactional regimes in 'global neighbourhoods' Ethnography, 6, 205-235.

Blumer, H. (1969) Symbolic Interactionism Berkeley: University of California Press.

Booth, N., Kohannejad, J. & Robinson, P. (2002) Information in the Consulting Room - Training Package, Sowerby Centre for Health Informatics at Newcastle.

Clayman, S. E. (1992) 'Footing in the achievement of neutrality: the case of news-interview discourse,' In Talk at Work: Interaction in Institutional Settings, P. Drew & J. Heritage, eds., pp. 163-198.

Connecting for Health (2005) A Guide to the National Programme for Information Technology. From npfit_brochure_apr_05_final.pdf.

Department of Health (2003) Investing in General Practice: The New General Medical Services Contract. From Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4071966.

Department of Health (2010) Liberating the NHS: An Information Revolution. From

Department of Health (2012) Informatics: The Future - An Organisational Summary. From future_final.pdf.

Erickson, F. (2004) Talk and Social Theory Cambridge: Polity.

Garfinkel, H. (1967) ' "Good" organizational reasons for "bad" clinic records,' In Studies in Ethnomethodology, Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, pp. 186-207.

General Practitioners Committee (2009) Quality and Outcomes Framework. Guidance - Updated August 2004. From dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4088693.pdf.

Goffman, E. (1959) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life London: Penguin Books.

Goffman, E. (1966) 'Involvement,' In Behavior in Public Places, New York: The Free Press, pp. 33-42.

Goffman, E. (1967) 'On Face-work,' In Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behaviour, New York: Pantheon Books, pp. 5-45.

Goffman, E. (1981) 'Footing,' In Forms of Talk, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 124-159.

Goffman, E. (1983) The interaction order. American Sociological Review, 48, 1-17.

Harre, R. (2002) Material objects in social worlds. Theory, Culture & Society, 19, (5-6) 23-33.

Iedema, R. (2003) The medical record as organizing discourse. Document Design, 4, 64-84.

Jewitt, C. (2006) 'Towards a multimodal analysis,' In Technology, Literacy and Learning: A Multimodal Approach, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 32-52.

Margalit, R. S., Roter, D., Dunevant, M. A., Larson, S. & Reis, S. (2006) Electronic medical record use and physician-patient communication: An observational study of Israeli primary care encounters. Patient Education and Counseling, 61, 134-141.

National Centre for Research Methods (2012) MODE Online Transcription Resource. See

Pearce, C. (2007) Doctors, Patients and Computers, the New Consultation. PhD Thesis. Department of General Practice, The University of Melbourne.

Rampton, B. (2007) Linguistic Ethnography and the Study of Identities. Downloadable from papers/43.pdf King's College London.

Rampton, B. (2007) Neo-Hymesian linguistic ethnography in the United Kingdom. Journal of Sociolinguistics 11(5): 584-607.

Roberts, C., Sarangi, S., Southgate, L., Wakeford, R. & Wass, V. (2000) Oral examination - equal opportunities, ethnicity, and fairness in the MRCGP. BMJ, 320, 370-375.

Sarangi, S. & Roberts, C. (1999) 'The dynamics of interactional and institutional orders in work-related settings,' In Talk, Work and Institutional Order, S. Sarangi & C. Roberts, eds., Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 1-57.

Scott, D. & Purves, I. (1996) Triadic relationship between doctor, computer and patient. Interacting with Computers, 8, 347-363.

Star, S. L (1999) The ethnography of infrastructure. The American Behavioral Scientist, 43, 377-391.

Stott, N. C. H. & Davis, R. H. (1979) The exceptional potential in each primary care consultation. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 29, 201-205.

Swinglehurst, D. (2014) Displays of authority in the clinical consultation: A linguistic ethnographic study of the electronic patient record. Social Science and Medicine 118: 17-26.

Swinglehurst, D., Greenhalgh, T. & Roberts, C. (2012) Computer templates in chronic disease management: ethnographic case study in general practice. BMJ Open, 2:e001754.doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001754.

Swinglehurst, D. & Roberts, C. (2012) 'The role of the electronic patient record in the clinical consultation (in press),' In Routledge Handbook of Language and Health Communication, H. Hamilton & W. S. Chou, eds., Routledge.

Swinglehurst, D., Roberts, C. & Greenhalgh, T. (2011) 'Opening up the "black box" of the electronic patient record: A linguistic ethnographic study in general practice.' Communication and Medicine, 8, 3-15.

Swinglehurst, D., Roberts, C., Li, S., Weber, O. & Singy P. Beyond the 'dyad': a qualitative re-evaluation of the changing clinical consultation. BMJ Open 2014;4:e006017.doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006017

Swinglehurst, D., Greenhalgh, T., Myall, M. & Russell, J. (2010) Ethnographic study of ICT-supported collaborative work routines in general practice. BMC Health Services Research, 10, 348.

Ventres, W., Kooienga, S. & Marlin, R. (2006) EHRs in the exam room: tips on patient-centred care. Family Practice Management, 13, 45-47.

Wagner, E., Austin, B. & Von Korff, M. (1996) Organising care for patients with chronic illness. Milbank Quarterly, 74, 511-544.

Werner, O. & Schoepfle, G. (1989) Systematic Field Work Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >