1. Irene Tham, “StarHub Combines Data of Cable TV Viewers and Mobile Users for Targeted Advertising,” Straits Times, September 19, 2014, www.straitstimes. com; www.starhub.com; “StarHub Pushes for Smarter Targetting,” Marketing-Interactive, September 19, 2014, www.marketing-interactive.com; “StarHub Crowned Brand of the Year,” Onscreen Asia, November 17, 2014, www.onscreenasia.com; Leila Abboud, “Telecom Firms Mine for Gold in Big Data Despite Privacy Concerns,” Reuters, February 23, 2014, www.reuters.com; Emma Hutchings, “Donate Unused Mobile Data to Good Causes,” PSFK.com, July 15, 2014, www.psfk.com.
2. Ira Kalb, “How to Do Direct Marketing That’s Not Annoying,” Business Insider, November 12, 2013.
3. Allison Schiff, “DMA: Direct Response Rates Beat Digital,” Direct Marketing News, June 14, 2012.
4. For an intriguing variation based on the timing involved with RFM, see Y. Zhang, Eric T. Bradlow, and Dylan S. Small, “Capturing Clumpiness when Valuing Customers: From RFM to RFMC,” working paper,
2014, Wharton School of Business.
5. Edward L. Nash, Direct Marketing: Strategy, Planning, Execution, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000).
6. “Internet & Mail-Order Retail Industry Profile,” www .firstresearch.com, March 3, 2014.
7. Christopher R. Stephens and R. Sukumar, “An Introduction to Data Mining,” Rajiv Grover and Marco Vriens, eds., Handbook of Marketing Research (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2006), pp. 455-86; Pang-Ning Tan, Michael Steinbach, and Vipin Kumar, Introduction to Data Mining (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison Wesley, 2005); Michael J. A. Berry and Gordon S. Linoff, Data Mining Techniques: For Marketing,
Sales, and Customer Relationship Management, 2nd ed. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Computer, 2004); James Lattin, Doug Carroll, and Paul Green, Analyzing Multivariate Data (Florence, KY: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2003).
8. Werner Reinartz and V Kumar, “The Mismanagement of Customer Loyalty,” Harvard Business Review,
July 2002, pp. 86-94; Susan M. Fournier, Susan Dobscha, and David Glen Mick, “Preventing the Premature Death of Relationship Marketing,” Harvard Business Review, January-February 1998, pp. 42-51.
9. Steve Kroft, “The Data Brokers: Selling Your Personal Information,” www.cbsnews.com, March 9, 2014.
10. “The View from the Field,” Harvard Business Review, July-August 2012, pp. 101-9.
11. Shrihari Sridhar, Murali K. Mantrala, and Sonke Albers, “Personal Selling Elasticities: A Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Marketing Research 47 (October 2010).
12. Michael Ahearne, Scott B. MacKenzie, Philip M. Podsakoff, John E. Mathieu, and Son K. Lam, “The Role of Consensus in Sales Team Performance,” Journal of Marketing Research 47 (June 2010), pp. 458-69.
13. Adapted from Robert N. McMurry, “The Mystique of Super-Salesmanship,” Harvard Business Review, March- April 1961, p. 114. Also see William C. Moncrief III, “Selling Activity and Sales Position Taxonomies for Industrial Sales Forces,” Journal of Marketing Research 23 (August 1986), pp. 261-70.
14. Some of the following discussion is based on a classic analysis in W. J. E. Crissy, William H. Cunningham, and Isabella C. M. Cunningham, Selling: The Personal Force in Marketing (New York: Wiley, 1977), pp. 119-29. For some contemporary perspective and tips, see Jia Lynn Yang, “How to Sell in a Lousy Economy,” Fortune, September 29, 2008, pp. 101-6; and Jessi Hempel, “IBM’s All-Star Salesman,” Fortune, September 29, 2008, pp. 110-19.
15. “The View from the Field,” Harvard Business Review, July-August 2012, pp. 101-9.
16. Brent Adamson, Matthew Dixon, and Nicholas Toman, “Dismantling the Sales Machine,” Harvard Business Review, November 2013, pp. 103-9.
17. V Kumar, Rajkumar Venkatesan, and Werner Reinartz, “Performance Implications of Adopting a Customer- Focused Sales Campaign,” Journal of Marketing 72 (September 2008), pp. 50-68; George R. Franke
and Jeong-Eun Park, “Salesperson Adaptive Selling Behavior and Customer Orientation,” Journal of Marketing Research 43 (November 2006), pp. 693-702; Richard G. McFarland, Goutam N. Challagalla, and Tasadduq A. Shervani, “Influence Tactics for Effective Adaptive Selling,” Journal of Marketing 70 (October 2006), pp. 103-17.
18. Brent Adamson, Matthew Dixon, and Nicholas Toman, “The End of Solution Sales,” Harvard Business Review, July-August 2012, pp. 60-68.
19. For distinctions between bonuses and commissions, see Sunil Kishore, Raghunath Singh Rao, Om Narasimhan, and George John, “Bonuses versus Commissions: A Field Study,” Journal of Marketing Research 50 (June 2013), pp. 317-33.
20. Tony Ritigliano and Benson Smith, Discover Your Sales Strengths (New York: Random House Business Books, 2004).
21. Sonke Albers, “Sales-Force Management— Compensation, Motivation, Selection, and Training,” Bart Weitz and Robin Wensley, eds., Handbook of Marketing (London: Sage, 2002), pp. 248-66.
22. Michael R. W. Bommer, Brian F. O’Neil, and Beheruz N. Sethna, “A Methodology for Optimizing Selling Time of Salespersons,” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice (Spring 1994), pp. 61-75. See also Lissan Joseph, “On the Optimality of Delegating Pricing Authority to the Sales Force,” Journal of Marketing 65 (January 2001), pp. 62-70.
23. Gaurav Sabnis, Sharmila C. Chatterjee, Rajdeep Grewal, and Gary L. Lilien, “The Sales Lead Black Hole: On Sales Reps’ Follow-up of Marketing Leads,” Journal of Marketing 77 (January 2013), pp. 52-67.
24. Jeff Green, ' ‘The New Willy Loman Survives by Staying Home” Bloomberg Businessweek, January 14, 2013,
25. Willem Verbeke and Richard P. Bagozzi, “Sales-Call Anxiety: Exploring What It Means When Fear Rules a Sales Encounter” Journal of Marketing 64 (July 2000), pp. 88-101. See also Douglas E. Hughes and Michael Ahearne, “Energizing the Reseller’s Sales Force: The Power of Brand Identification,” Journal of Marketing 74 (July 2010), pp. 81-96; Jeffrey P. Boichuk, Willy Bolander, Zachary R. Hall, Michael Ahearne, William J. Zahn, and Melissa Nieves, “Learned Helplessness among Newly Hired Salespeople and the Influence of Leadership,” Journal of Marketing 78 (January 2014), pp. 95-111.
26. Gilbert A. Churchill Jr., Neil M. Ford, Orville C. Walker Jr., Mark W. Johnston, and Greg W. Marshall, Sales- Force Management, 9th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill/ Irwin, 2009). See also Eric G. Harris, John C. Mowen, and Tom J. Brown, “Reexamining Salesperson Goal Orientations,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 33 (Winter 2005), pp. 19-35.
27. Andrea L. Dixon, Rosann L. Spiro, and Magbul Jamil, “Successful and Unsuccessful Sales Calls: Measuring Salesperson Attributions and Behavioral Intentions,” Journal of Marketing 65 (July 2001), pp. 64-78; Verbeke and Bagozzi, “Sales-Call Anxiety: Exploring What It Means When Fear Rules a Sales Encounter,”