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The Changing Structure of the Ethnic Community
How has the continuous influx of new Chinese migrants affected the ethnic- Chinese community? The social transition from the older generation to the new generation within Chinese associations in Japan is essentially complete, and these associations, now mainly composed of new immigrants, are gradually becoming a core component of Chinese communities in Japan. Since the 1980s, following an increase in the Chinese population in Japan and an improvement in their visa status, many different Chinese associations have been established. In 2015 it was reported that there were around 200 in Japan (Zhongwen Daobao ф ^ January 1,2016), including a variety of new-immigrant associations. For example, there are business associations such as Riben Zhonghua Zongshanghui ( Chinese Chamber of Commerce in Japan), a new overseas Chinese-based transnational Chinese economic association, established on September 9, 1999, and ZaiRi Zhongguo Qiye Xiehui (А В Ф H AAfAA China Enterprise Association in Japan), an association for Chinese-owned corporations active in Japan, established in July 2000. There are also hometown associations, such as ZaiRi Jilin Tongxianghui (А В AABA A Jilin Hometown Association). Most visible are professional associations and alumni associations based on universities in Japan and in China, such as Riben Huaren Jiaoshou Huiyi (В AAAШША1Х the Society of Chinese Professors in Japan), ZaiRi Zhongguo Lushi Lianhehui (А В Ф HAWffiAA Chinese Lawyers Associations in Japan), Zairi Zhongguo Kexue Jishuzhe Lianmeng (А В Ф feAAffiffi the Chinese Association of Science and Technology in Japan), the Association of Chinese Alumni at the University of Tokyo (ФА АФ Ф H Ш В BAA) and Nanjing University Alumni Association in Japan (ФА АФ
Overseas-Chinese associations have grown not only in quantity but in quality. Membership of new associations has grown, and bonds have been formed with Chinese people around the world. The overseas-Chinese associations are energized and powerful. Their activities include Zhongguo Wenhuajie (ФВААА Chinese Cultural Festivals), Dongjing Zhongguo Dianyingzhou (ААФВФ^В Chinese Film Festival in Tokyo) and Qinqing Zhonghua (А^Ф A Affection China). Together with Liuri Huaqiao Lianhehui (Ш В AffiffiAA, Overseas Chinese Association of Japan) and Shenhu Zhonghua Zongshanghui (ФАФААША Chinese General Chamber of Commerce of Kobe), Riben Zhonghua Zongshanghui convened the 9th World Chinese Entrepreneurs Convention (AAAB AA) in September 2007.
In 2003, Riben Xin Huaqiao Huarenhui ( В AAAffiAAA), the New Overseas Chinese Association in Japan, was established by eight associations. In 2013 it became the Union of Chinese Residing in Japan (QuanRiben Huaoqiao Huaren Lianhehui А В AAffiAA® AA), which now has 47 member associations. Riben Zhonghua Zongshanghui, which always had branches in Beijing and Shanghai, now has additional branches such as Dongjing Zhonghua Zongshanghui (AАФAABA China General Chamber of Commerce of Tokyo) and Guanxi Zhonghua Zongshanghui (АИФ A AAA China General Chamber of Commerce of Kansai). In 2003 the early-overseas-Chinese association, Liuri Huaqiao
Lianhe Zonghui (©В^ШЩАЙА, established on May 27, 1999) was renamed Riben Huaqiao Huaren Lianhe Zonghui ( В А^Ш^АЩйЙА). Associations for old and new Chinese immigrants are now collaborating.
Given the current surge in social networking, numerous communities across Japan have come together via social media. Chinese media in Japan provide essential support for the Chinese community. In Japan, ethnic- Chinese associations had always made Chinese newspapers and magazines available to its members from an early age (Liao 2012: 26). However, since the 1980s, many Chinese in Japan, particularly students, have worked in the media sector prior to migrating. In Japan they tend to return to work in this sector. In addition to publishing newspapers and magazines such as Liuxuesheng Xinwen (©^АШй, International Students’ News), Zhongwen Daobao (АА^Ш), Riben Xinhuaqiao Bao (ВАШАШШ) and Riben Qiao Bao ( В АШШ), they have started up a Chinese television station, DafuTV (A S' АШ), which does live broadcasts ofimportant events such as National Day. Chinese media are popular with the Chinese community in Japan. In March 2014, Zhongwen Daobao celebrated the occasion of publishing its 1000th issue after nearly 22 years.
The ethnic Chinese communities in Japan have done many positive things. They have provided new immigrants with assistance and support, helped them to resettle and integrate into a new environment, and provided them with a sense of security, identity and belonging. They have built bridges between China and Japan, encouraged trade, and promoted educational and cultural exchanges. They have enabled mainstream society to hear the voices of minorities. They have also passed on traditional Chinese culture.
Of the ten Chinese schools active in Japan in 1948, only five remained in 1998 (Guo 1999: 71). Though the new immigrants have not established any full-time Chinese schools, there are numerous after-hours establishments. For example, the Tong Yuan Chinese School (ЙМАААЙ), established in 1995, operates as a weekend school. It started with just two teachers and 30 students, but it now has ten branch campuses in Tokyo, Chiba, Saitama, Kanagawa and Aichi. It has around 800 students and has taught more than 8000 in the course of its history. It strives to ensure that Chinese children do not forget their ancestral language (Zhongwen Daobao, January 1, 2016).
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