1. Media Research and Action Project, http://www.mrap.info. Recently, the project’s name was changed to Movement/Media Research Action Project.
2. William Gamson, “Safe Spaces and Social Movements,” Perspectives on Social Problems 8 (1996): 27-38.
3. Michael Burawoy, “2004 ASA Presidential Address: For Public Sociology,” American Sociological Review 70, no. 1 (2005): 4-28.
4. Doug Bevington and Chris Dixon have documented that most activists do not utilize academic social movement theory. Bevington and Dixon, “MovementRelevant Theory: Rethinking Social Movement Scholarship and Action,” Social Movement Studies 4, no. 3 (2005): 185-208.
5. Aldon Morris, The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change (London: Free Press Collier Macmillan, 1984).
6. For an excellent, historically grounded introduction to the public sociology debates, see Robert Kleidman, “Engaged Social Movement Scholarship,” in Handbook of Public Sociology, ed. Vincent Jeffries (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2009), 341-56.
7. Mary F. Belenky, Blythe Clinchy, Nancy Goldberger, and Jill Tarule, Womens Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice and Mind (New York: Basic Books, 1986), 144.
8. Karen Jeffreys, communication with authors, July 7, 2005.
9. Sarah De Cataldo, interview by authors, June 5, 2007.
10. Lawrence Frey and Kevin Carragee, Communication Activism: Communication for Social Change, 2 vols. (Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2007).