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Notes

  • 1. Lawrence Lessig, Code: And Other Laws of Cyberspace (New York: Basic Books, 2000).
  • 2. Rajiv C. Shah and Christian Sandvig, “Software Defaults as de facto Regulation: The Case of the Wireless Internet,” Information, Communication & Society 11, no. 1 (2008): 25-46.
  • 3. David McGowan, “Between Logic and Experience: Error Costs and United States v. Microsoft Corp.,” Berkeley Technology Law Journal 20, no. 2 (2005): 1185-1245.
  • 4. James Boyle, The Public Domain: Enclosing the Commons of the Mind (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008), 45.
  • 5. Ronald V. Bettig, “The Enclosure of Cyberspace,” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 14, no. 2 (1997): 138.
  • 6. James Boyle, “The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain,” Law and Contemporary Problems 66, no. 1/2 (2003): 33-74.
  • 7. Ronald V. Bettig, “Critical Perspectives on the History and Philosophy of Copyright,” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 9, no. 2 (1992): 131-55; Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979).
  • 8. Michael E. Johnson, “The Uncertain Future of Computer Software Users’ Rights in the Aftermath of MAI Systems,” Duke Law Journal 44, no. 2 (1994): 327—56.
  • 9. Herbert I. Schiller, Who Knows: Information in the Age of the Fortune 500 (Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1981), 56.
  • 10. Bettig, “The Enclosure of Cyberspace,” 138.
  • 11. Kembrew McLeod, Freedom of Expression®: Overzealous Copyright Bozos and Other Enemies of Creativity (New York: Doubleday, 2005), 8.
  • 12. Bobbie Johnson, “Amazon Kindle Users Surprised by ‘Big Brother’ Move,” The Guardian, July 17, 2009, Technology section, accessed January 8, 2010, http:// www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2009/jul/17/amazon-kindle-1984; Brad Stone, “Amazon Erases Orwell Books from Kindle,” The New York Times, July 18, 2009, Technology/Companies section, accessed January 8, 2010, http://www.nytimes .com/2009/07/18/technology/companies/18amazon.html.
  • 13. Priya Ganapati, “Apple Blocks Palm Pre iTunes Syncing Again,” Wired.com, October 30, 2009, accessed January 8, 2010, http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2009/10/ palm-pre-itunes.
  • 14. Steven Levy, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984).
  • 15. E. Gabriella Coleman and Alex Golub, “Hacker Practice: Moral Genres and the Cultural Articulation of Liberalism,” Anthropological Theory 8, no. 3 (2008): 255-78.
  • 16. Helen Nissenbaum, “Hackers and the Contested Ontology of Cyberspace,” New Media & Society 6, no. 2 (April 2004): 195-217, 212.
  • 17. Free Software Foundation, “The Free Software Definition,” 2009, accessed January 8, 2010, http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html.
  • 18. Eric S. Raymond, The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary, rev. ed. (Sebastapol, CA: O’Reilly, 2001).
  • 19. Steven Weber, The Success of Open Source (Harvard, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), 62.
  • 20. The exact nature of collaboration among open source software developers is the subject of a good deal of sociological work. The form of these collaborations range widely from loose “adhocrasies” to sophisticated democratic projects (such as Debian) with mutually agreed-upon rules for development of software. Finally, some open source projects, like the development of the Linux kernel, are essentially benign dictatorships in that they are controlled centrally by a single developer (in this case, Linux founder Linus Torvalds), who personally selects each and every individual who contributes to the development of the project.
  • 21. Weber, The Success of Open Source, 47.
  • 22. Lawrence Lessig, Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity (New York: Penguin Press, 2004).
  • 23. Ibid., xiv.
  • 24. Chris Kelty, Two Bits: The Cultural Significance of Free Software (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008), 8.
  • 25. Weber, The Success of Open Source, 54-55.
  • 26. Open Source Initiative, “The Open Source Definition,” accessed December 30, 2009, http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd.
  • 27. Free Software Foundation, “The GNU General Public License,” accessed December 30, 2009, http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html; Weber, The Success of Open Source, 48—49.
  • 28. David Bollier, Viral Spiral: How the Commoners Built a Digital Republic of Their Own (New York: New Press, 2008), 30.
  • 29. Gabriella Coleman, “Code is Speech: Legal Tinkering, Expertise, and Protest among Free and Open Source Software Developers,” Cultural Anthropology 24, no. 3 (2009): 420-454, 424.
  • 30. Ibid., 421.
  • 31. Ibid., 422.
  • 32. Free Software Foundation, “BadVista,” 2006, accessed January 8, 2010, http:// badvista.fsf.org.
  • 33. Software Freedom Law Center, “What We Do,” January 8, 2009, accessed January 8, 2010, http://www.softwarefreedom.org/services.
  • 34. Software Freedom Law Center, “Best Buy, Samsung, Westinghouse, and Eleven Other Brands Named in SFLC Lawsuit,” December 14, 2009, accessed January 8, 2010, http://www.softwarefreedom.org/news/2009/dec/14/busybox-gpl-lawsuit.
  • 35. Lessig, Free Culture, 261.
  • 36. Creative Commons, “History—Creative Commons,” 2009, accessed January 8, 2010, http://creativecommons.org/about/history.
  • 37. Boyle, The Public Domain, 182.
  • 38. Bollier, Viral Spiral, 4.
  • 39. Raymond, The Cathedral and the Bazaar.
  • 40. Ibid., 81.
  • 41. Manuel Castells, The Internet Galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, Business, and Soci- ety (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).
  • 42. Ibid., 48.
  • 43. Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting (New York: Basic Books, 1973); Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001).
  • 44. The Netscape Corporation was purchased by America Online (AOL) in November 1998, but not before they had released the source code to their browser under the newly created Mozilla Public License (which had a structure very similar to the GNU Public License).
  • 45. Raymond, The Cathedral and the Bazaar, 178-79.
  • 46. Kelty, Two Bits, 98.
 
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