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1. Ming Kuok Lim, “Inverted-Panopticism: The Use of Mobile Technologies in Surveillance” (paper, International Communication Association meeting, San

Francisco, CA, May 23, 2007), accessed July 10, 2009, http://www.allacademic .com/meta/p172572_index.html.

  • 2. The founding date of Berkeley Copwatch is taken from the group’s Copwatch Handbook: An Introduction to Citizen Monitoring of the Police (Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Copwatch, n.d.), accessed August 2, 2009, http://www.berkeleycopwatch.org/ resources/Handbook_06.pdf. Laura Huey, Kevin Walby, and Aaron Doyle include a list of cities with Copwatch groups: “Cop Watching in the Downtown Eastside,” in Surveillance and Security: Technological Politics and Power in Everyday Life, ed. Torin Monahan (New York: Routledge, 2006), 149.
  • 3. John Durham Peters, “Witnessing,” Media, Culture & Society 23, no. 6 (2001), 708.
  • 4. Stephen Green, “A Plague on the Pantopticon: Surveillance and Power in the Global Information Economy,” Information, Communication & Society 2, no. 1 (1999), 29.
  • 5. Richard Kahn and Douglas Kellner, “New Media and Internet Activism: From the ‘Battle of Seattle’ to Blogging,” New Media & Society 6, no. 1 (2004), 93.
  • 6. Ibid., 93.
  • 7. Steve Mann, Jason Nolan, and Barry Wellman, “Sousveillance: Inventing and Using Wearable Computing Devices for Data Collection in Surveillance Environments,” Surveillance & Society 1, no. 3 (2003), 335.
  • 8. David Lyon, Surveillance Society: Monitoring in Everyday Life (Buckingham, UK: Open University Press, 2001), 2.
  • 9. “NYPD Officer Caught on Tape Body-Slamming Cyclist During Critical Mass Ride,” DemocracyNow.org, August 1, 2008, accessed August 2, 2010, http://www .democracynow.org/2008/8/1/i_witness_video_nypd_officer_caught.
  • 10. “About,” I-Witness Video, accessed August 2, 2010, http://iwitnessvideo.info/ about/index.html.
  • 11. Eileen Clancy, quoted in “NYPD Officer,” DemocracyNow.org.
  • 12. Ibid.
  • 13. Colin Moynihan, “City Subpoenas for Access to Tapes of 2004 Protests,” The New York Times, June 20, 2002, accessed August 2, 2010, http://www.nytimes .com/2008/06/20/nyregion/20convention.html.
  • 14. Colin Moynihan, “To Get ‘04 Tapes, City Cites Lost Evidence,” The New York Times, July 26, 2008, accessed August 4, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/26/ nyregion/26video.html.
  • 15. Jim Dwyer, “When Official Truth Collides With Cheap Digital Technology,” The New York Times, July 30, 2008, accessed August 4, 2010, http://www.nytimes .com/2008/07/30/nyregion/30about.html.
  • 16. Ibid.
  • 17. Dwyer, “Videos Challenge Accounts of Convention Unrest,” The New York Times, July 30, 2008, accessed August 4, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/12/ nyregion/12video.html.
  • 18. Dwyer, “When Official Truth Collides.”
  • 19. Ibid.
  • 20. Founded in 2002, the Glass Bead Collective has a somewhat broader focus than I-Witness: it circulates videos of police abuse and documented police mistreatment of activists, as during the 2004 and 2008 Republican National Conventions in videos called Watch This! and Terrorizing Dissent. The collective also stages multimedia artworks and lends its video expertise to other activist and performance groups.
  • 21. Dwyer, “When Official Truth Collides.”
  • 22. Ibid.
  • 23. Mary Turck, “Homeland Insecurity in the Twin Cities,” The Twin Cities Daily Planet, August 26, 2008, accessed August 4, 2010, http://www.tcdailyplanet.net/ article/2008/08/26/homeland-insecurity-twin-cities.html.
  • 24. Liliana Seguro, “RNC Raids Have Been Targeting Video Activists,” AlterNet. org, September 1, 2008, accessed August 4, 2010, http://www.alternet.org/ rights/97110/rnc_raids_have_been_targeting_video_activists_.
  • 25. For an account of the events on the I-Witness Video Blog, see http://iwitnessvideo .info/blog/110.html.
  • 26. Diane Cardwell, “After Protests, City Agrees to Rewrite Proposed Rules on Photography Permits,” The New York Times, August 4, 2007, accessed August 2, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/04/nyregion/04filmmakers.html.
  • 27. Moynihan, “To Get ‘04 Tapes.”
  • 28. Ibid.
  • 29. Mann, Nolan, and Wellman, “Sousveillance,” 335.
  • 30. Huey, Walby, and Doyle, “Cop Watching in the Downtown Eastside,” 160.
  • 31. Bruno Latour, “Why has Critique Run Out of Steam? From Matters of Fact to Matters of Concern,” Critical Inquiry 30 (2004), 226.
  • 32. Joshua Micah Marhsall, “The Post-Modern President,” Washington Monthly, September 2003, accessed August 2, 2010, http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/ features/2003/0309.marshall.html.
  • 33. Slavoj Zizek, Iraq: The Borrowed Kettle (London: Verso, 2004), 25.
  • 34. Vlad Teichberg, personal communication, September 8, 2009.
  • 35. Ibid.
  • 36. Thomas Mathiesen, “The Viewer Society,” Theoretical Criminology 1, no. 2 (1997), 215.
  • 37. Mann, Nolan, and Wellman, “Sousveillance,” 342.
 
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