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This leads us to an analysis of the different dimensions of the term ‘Franks’ in the Arabic-Islamic sources treated up to this point. As we have seen, the earliest extant Arabic-Islamic records situate the Frankish realm in the north of al-Andalus and northwest of the Byzantine and Slavic sphere.76 However, the case of Bertha may suggest that the ethnonym ‘Franks’ was already extended to other groups and peoples before the crusading era. This is confirmed by al-Bakri (d. 487/1094), who claimed that the Frankish sphere included ‘other tribes’ (ghayriha min al-qaba’it) and reached the ‘island of Rome and the land of the Langobards’ (jazirat Ruma wa-balad Lanqubardhiyya) in the south and the surrounding ocean (al-bahr al-muhit) in the north. There, it bordered on the Slavs (al-Saqaliba) and ‘the lands of the Northmen’ (bilad al-Majus) called ‘Angles’ (al-Anqalish) 7[1] Dealing with the early Middle Ages, the later Ibn Khaldun (d. 808/1406) even distinguishes between a ‘king of the Franks behind the West’ and a ‘king of the Franks in the east’.7[2]

  • [1] 6 See the passages on the Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in Ibn Habib (d. 238/853), IbnAbd al-Hakam (d. 257/871), al-Baladhuri (d. 278/892), al-Yaqubi (d. after 292/905), and IbnKhurdadhbah (d. c.300/911), treated in Chapters 5.1.2. and 6.1.2. 77 al-Bakri, al-masalik, ed. van Leeuwen and Ferre, § 1532, p. 914. 78 Ibn Khaldun, tarikh, ed. Zakkar and Shahada, vol. 4, p. 183: ‘min malik al-Faranja warnal-Maghrib . . . wa-akhar min malik al-Faranja bi-qasiyyat al-mashriq’; copied almost identically byal-Maqqari, nafh al-tib, ed. Abbas, vol. 1, p. 365. See Chapter 8.2.2. 79 Jarrett, Rulers (2010); Bisson, Crown (1991), ch. 1. 8° Cf. Millas i Vallicrosa, Textos (1987); Bramon Planas, Textos (1998). 81 See Chapter 6.1.2.
  • [2] 2 Ibn Hayyan, al-muqtabisII-l, ed. Makki, trans. Makki and Corriente, fol. 95b, AH 185, p. 116(AR), p. 36 (ES); fol. 101b—102a, AH 197, p. 136 (AR), pp. 51-2 (ES); fol. 177b, AH 212, p. 422(AR), p. 286 (ES), on the Frankish conquest of Barcelona and Muslim efforts to reconquer the lostterritory. Cf. Ibn Khaldun, tarikh, ed. Zakkar and Shahada, vol. 4, pp. 235-6, on Frankish activitiesin the Spanish Levant.
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