The Expanding Latin-Christian Sphere
Already one and a half centuries before pope Urban II preached the First Crusade, al-Mas'udi (d. 345/956) regarded the Carolingian thrust into the Spanish Levant and the campaigns against Muslims in southern Italy as expressions of cooperative action against Islam by the Christian progeny of Yafeth.  These campaigns in the late eighth and the ninth centuries constituted the prelude to a period that can justifiably be termed an ‘age’ of Latin-Christian expansionism.2 The Norman invasion of Sicily in the eleventh century and the series of campaigns that made up the crusades and the so-called Reconquista wrested various territories from Muslim control.
-  al-Mas'udl, muruj, ed./trans. Pellat, § 910, p. 145 (AR), p. 343 (FR); § 922, pp. 151—2 (AR),pp. 347—8 (FR). See the translated quotations in Chapters 6.4.1. and 8.2.3.
-  Cf. Bartlett, Making (1993); France, Crusades (2005); see also the multi-volume series by JamesMuldoon and Felipe Fernandez-Armesto (eds), The Expansion of Latin Europe, 1000—1500, 12 vols(2007-2014).