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The Top 10 Key Points ...

  • 1. Taylorism didn’t see the relevance and need for non-technical learning and development programs.
  • 2. Training is one approach of learning and development; it’s primarily concerned with the technical skill enhancement of the job-holder. Learning and development is a broader concept, that takes into consideration both technical and non-technical dimensions of learning.
  • 3. Most learning activities can be classified as job-related, person- related, or problem-related; the three dimensions of learning and development.
  • 4. The job-centered approach is the one most directly related to the specifics of one’s job performance.
  • 5. Training programs that improve an employee’s capacity to operate a piece of machinery, master some form of technology or a work- related system or process, are job-centered.
  • 6. The person-centered approach is based on the idea that a more accomplished person can be a more accomplished employee.
  • 7. Training programs that improve an employee’s mastery of themselves—rather than mastery of a job skill—such as goal setting, personal motivation, time management, and emotional intelligence potentially increase work performance in the right circumstances.
  • 8. A third learning and development dimension is problem-centered; that is, being more effective at solving work-related problems.
  • 9. Topics such as creative problem-solving techniques, research skills, or analysis of real world case studies are examples of problem-centered learning.
  • 10. The author recommends shifting from a mostly narrow job-centered learning focus to a multi-dimensional approach; this utilizes the strengths of all three dimensions of learning and development.


  • 1. Baker, T. (2014). Attracting and retaining talent: Becoming an employer of choice. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • 2. Kuchinke, K.P. (1999). Adult education towards what end? A philosophical analysis of the concept as reflected in the research theory, and practice of human resource development. Adult Education Quarterly, 49 (4), 148—160. Maitland, I. (1994). The morality of the corporation. Business Ethics Quarterly, 4, 445-458.
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  • 4. Baker, T. (2013). The end of the performance review: A new approach to appraising employee performance. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
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