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Mycotoxins

Several overviews of the history of mycotoxins in food and feed, including cereals and malt, as well as coverage of their impact on human and animal health and on the economy have been published in the past (Kampelmacher, 1973; Charmley et al., 1995; D'Mello and MacDonald, 1997; Hussein and Brasel, 2001; Richard, 2007; Bhat et al., 2010; Zain,

2011). Despite the wide variety of substances that fall into the category of mycotoxins (about 400), the number of compounds present in substrates for human consumption and consumption by livestock is relatively limited (=30). This is due to the fact that the majority of compounds are intermediates of known mycotoxins so far described only in lab cultures. Under natural conditions, however, they are converted to one of the major components found regularly in food products. Most of the known mycotoxins produced on cereals and malt come from species within the ascomycete- ous genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. However, also species in Acremonium (crotocin), Chaetomium (chaetoglobosin, coch- liodinol), Eurotium (xanthocillin), Stachybotrys (roridin, satratoxins, trichoverrins and trichover- rols, verrucarin), Trichoderma (trichodermin) or Trichothecium (trichothecin) may infrequently grow in cereal seeds and can produce the mycotox- ins shown in parentheses. The following sections give an overview of the mycotoxins that have been reported to occur in brewing cereals, malt or beer. Information on legal limits for the mycotoxins in different countries of the world were taken from a survey published by the FAO (2004). More background information on legal limits for mycotoxins in the EU and in the USA can be found on the homepage of the German Society for Mycotoxin Research www.mycotoxin.de/.

 
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