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Hanseniaspora (Kloeckera)

Hanseniaspora (anamorph: Kloeckera) species reproduce via bipolar budding, usually resulting in cells that display a characteristic apiculate shape. However, Hanseniaspora can produce a variety of cell morphologies, with pairs of cells being relatively common (with a skittle-like appearance), as well as elongated and bottle-shaped individuals. Short pseudohyphae structures can also be formed, leading to surface film formation, although this is typically not as strong as pellicles formed by other genera. Interestingly, Hanseniaspora species have been reported to be one of the predominant yeast genera found on grapes and can often be found during the early stages of natural wine fermentations (Heard and Fleet, 1985; Prakitchaiwattana et al., 2004). There is some evidence to suggest that due to their association with fruits, certain Hanseniaspora species such as H. uvarum and H. apiculata can be carried by drosophila flies (Miller and Phaff, 1962), hence insect vectors are likely to form a major route into the brewery, as well as raw materials. Within the brewing process, Hansenias- pora spp. are mainly found during the aerobic stages of fermentation and are sometimes associated with draft beer (Wiles, 1950; Hemmons, 1954).

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