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Kluyveromyces cells are generally ovoid or ellipsoidal, although other morphologies can be observed, including elongated cells and the production of pseudohyphae. Kluyveromyces strains are homothal- lic and are therefore able to self-fertilize, producing heat-resistant ascospores. Yeast belonging to this genus are industrially significant and can have a positive impact in fermented milk products, natural wine fermentations and traditional African beers (Maoura et al., 2005; Jolly et al., 2014; Misihairab- gwi et al., 2015; Prado et al., 2015). Kluyveromyces species such as K. lactis and K. marxianus (see also section on Candida, below) are also able to ferment a range of sugars that many other yeasts cannot, including lactose, inulin, and the pentose sugar xylose. Hence, these yeasts have been explored for the conversion of waste products (including whey) for bioethanol production. Isolates found within the brewery may be derived from malt and other raw materials. General spoilage effects include the production of turbidity and off-flavours as a result of vigorous fermentation. However, some strains contain killer plasmids (see section ‘Beer-spoiling yeasts and killer toxins'), which can have a severely negative impact on a pitching yeast culture and hence overall fermentation progression (Stark and Boyd, 1986; Rodriguez-Cousino et al., 2011).

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