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TYPES OF MEASURES Individual-Level Measures

Measures at the individual level can target the study participant or an informant such as a caregiver or health care provider. They can include clinical outcomes (e.g., weight loss), physiological indices (e.g., heart rate) or biomarkers (e.g., blood proteins), or measures of emotional well-being (e.g., depression, anxiety). They may also include measures of cognition (e.g., working memory), functional performance (e.g., Activities of daily Living (ADL)/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) performance), performance on a task or activity (e.g., Internet search), or some aspect of health behavior (e.g., amount of exercise, sleep patterns). Additional measures include psychosocial outcomes such as perceptions of social support, loneliness, burden, quality of life, or satisfaction. Measures of personality traits and personal beliefs or attitudes are also included in intervention trials as well as evaluation measures such as questionnaires that assess the value or acceptability of an intervention or some element of usability. These measures are sometimes used as indicators of the social validity of an intervention, which is also a marker of clinical significance (Chapter 17).

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