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Superconducting Magnetic Energy Stores (SMES)

Continuing development of high-temperature superconductors, where the transition temperature can be around 60-80 K (K is degrees Kelvin where 0 K is absolute zero and 273 K is 0 °C) has led to the possibility of storing energy in the magnetic field produced by circulating a large current (over 100 kA) in an inductance. For a coil of inductance L in air, the stored energy is given by

A big advantage of the high-temperature superconductor is that cooling by liquid nitrogen can be used, which is far cheaper than using helium to reach temperatures closer to absolute zero. Initially, it is expected that commercial units will be used to provide an uninterruptible supply for sensitive loads to guard against voltage sags or to provide continuity whilst emergency generators are started. Another use in transmission networks would be to provide fast response for enhanced transient stability and improved power quality.

Flywheels

The most compact energy store known is that of utilizing high-speed flywheels. Such devices coupled to an electrical generator/motor have been employed in buses on an experimental basis and also in special industrial applications. For power systems, very large flywheels constructed of composite high-tensile resisting materials have been proposed, but their cost and maintenance problems have so far ruled them out of economic contention compared with alternative forms of energy supply.

Supercapacitors

The interface between an anode and cathode immersed in an electrolyte has a very high permittivity. This property can be exploited in a capacitor to produce a 25 V capsule with a capacitance of 0.1 F. Many units in series and parallel would have the capability of storing many MWh of energy, which can be quickly released for transient control purposes. To date, higher voltage forms of a commercially useful device have not got beyond their employment for pulse or actuator applications.

 
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