Table 10.1 Method for designing and delivering effective training (adapted from Goldstein and Ford, 2002)
1a. training needs assessment 1B. Define training objectives
training and development
2A. Select and design training programme 2B. Devise training strategy
3A. design assessment measures 3B. training evaluation goals
Classical models of training start with an identification of the training needs, defining the objectives of the training, development of the training, and evaluation of the training. This is typical of the majority of the training models in the literature (e.g. Goldstein and Ford, 2002; Lambert, 1993). table 10.1 provides an overview of a method for designing and delivering training: Each of the steps will be described in detail below.
Phase 1: Needs assessment
Conducting a training needs assessment is crucial. in the context of non-technical skills, a training needs assessment is the identification of skills that need to be trained. it is an easy stage to either ignore, or not carry out adequately. However, a good training needs assessment will pay dividends when it comes to designing the training. there is no point in developing a training course that does not address the needs of a given job and ultimately the needs of the organisation, because it was based upon a poor training needs assessment. this is a waste of time, resources and money. further, the opportunity for developing a worthwhile training course is lost.
1A: Training needs assessment techniques for identifying non-technical skills required for a particular task or profession are discussed in detail in Chapter 9. a training needs assessment is designed to identify the gaps between present levels of skill and the required levels. in practice, much of the non-technical skills training outside aviation is run at an introductory level. for more advanced and targeted skills training, the gap analysis may be based on regular performance evaluations, safety auditing or organisational data, such as incident analysis.
1B: Training objectives the content of a non-technical skills training course is dependent on the identified training needs, and the ability to design methods to address these training needs in an effective manner. for each non-technical skill that was identified in the training needs assessment, training objectives should be written. these objectives should be recorded in such a way that they can be empirically evaluated to determine whether or not they were accomplished. the training objectives then guide the development of the content of the course. training objectives are crucial as these can be empirically evaluated to assess whether or not they were achieved through the training (Goldstein and ford, 2002).