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Experimental Results

The measured surface tension values are plotted in Fig. 6. There are three different oxygen concentrations of zirconium samples—57 ppm, 1560 ppm and 2.42 at.%, with three samples for each concentration. The data from the same composition shows consistent results. The difference between Zr + 57 ppm and Zr + 1560 ppm oxygen was within the standard error of the measurement, 0.87%, and was determined by a t-test to be not statistically significant. The surface tension of samples with 2.42% oxygen was decreased by 9%. A linear interpolation between the 57 ppm and high oxygen results would give a change in surface tension of 0.58% at 1560 ppm, consistent with the observation that the change is less than 0.87%.

The Fig. 7 shows the present surface tension data of zirconium sample with 57 ppm oxygen was compared with those from Iida and Guthrie [5], Paradis et al. [3] and Rhim et al. [6]. All data show a good agreement one another. The relative errors are less than 0.87%. The surface tension is dependent on oxygen content, changing 3.72% per %O. The Fig. 8 gives the comparison with Iida and Guthrie [5] and Roesner-Kuhn’s [7] data with the error bar of the present surface tension. A fair agreement can be observed between the present work and Iida. However, so called a ‘boomerang effect’ (positive slope at low temperatures and negative at high) which had been reported by Roesner-Kuhn was not observed in the present data.

Surface tension of Zr + 57 ppm, Zr + 1560 ppm oxygen and Zr + 2.42% oxygen + 57 ppm

Fig. 6 Surface tension of Zr + 57 ppm, Zr + 1560 ppm oxygen and Zr + 2.42% oxygen + 57 ppm

Surface tension of Zr + 57 ppm oxygen compared with and Iida and Guthrie [5], Paradis et al. [3] and Rhim et al. [6]

Fig. 7 Surface tension of Zr + 57 ppm oxygen compared with and Iida and Guthrie [5], Paradis et al. [3] and Rhim et al. [6]

Surface tension of Zr + 57 ppm oxygen, Zr + 1560 ppm oxygen and Zr + 2.42% oxygen compared with Roesner-Kuhn et al. [7]

Fig. 8 Surface tension of Zr + 57 ppm oxygen, Zr + 1560 ppm oxygen and Zr + 2.42% oxygen compared with Roesner-Kuhn et al. [7]

 
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