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The fluid flow and mixing phenomena in argon-stirred ladles with one or two tuyeres were studied with the help of physical modeling. Considering the effects of tuyere arrangement, injected gas flowrate and aspect ratio on mixing, a proper configuration of tuyeres for the minimum mixing time has been proposed. On the basis of above results and discussions, the following conclusion can be drawn.

(1) The following empirical equation was proposed for mixing characteristic in the ladle. Under certain conditions, the relationship for mixing time could be given by this equation.

  • (2) In the study, the parameters in the equation were dimensionless. The conclusions were also applicable to the ladle which had a similar size.
  • (3) Water model experiment showed that the shortest mixing time was obtained in the case of single tuyere placed at 2/3R off center. Under the condition of dual tuyeres, two tuyeres opposite placed at half radii in the ladle was seen as the best arrangement.
  • (4) Generally, mixing time decreased with increasing gas flowrate, but the effect was not great after 80 L/h. Furthermore, mixing time increased with increasing depth of the pool.
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