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Bio-heat transfer model

As mentioned before, the bio-heat transfer model, represented by Eq. (3.3), was proposed by Pennes [140]. Before developing this model, Pennes assumed that (1) metabolic heat is linearly transported within the human body, (2) the thermal properties of tissues are constant in each layer, (3) local blood flow rate is constant in the human body, and (4) blood temperature is constant and equal to the human body’s temperature. Although this bio-heat model is rigorously applied, it is obvious that Pennes’ assumptions cannot be always constant [158]. Depending upon the intensity of human ambient environments, blood flow rate through vessels and capillaries varies. Additionally, a great deal of convective metabolic heat transfer occurs along with blood flow, and metabolic heat exchange also occurs between small and loosely spaced vessels. These situations ultimately affect Eq. (3.5); in turn, the bio-heat transfer model does not remain valid and accurate for all situations.

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