Language Learning Strategies
Learning strategies are seen as particularly important for self-regulated language learning because the adoption of appropriate strategies allows learners to take more responsibility for their own learning (Dickinson, 1987). Research on language learning strategies began with the strategies of the “good language learner” by Rubin (1975) and Stern (1975). From these initial research efforts, numerous researchers have attempted to emphasize the importance of language-learning strategies used by successful language learners (e.g., Abraham & Vann, 1987; Chamot & Kupper, 1989; Naiman, Frohlich, Stern, & Todesco, 1978; O’Malley & Chamot, 1990; Oxford, 1990). They noted that, generally speaking, more successful learners employed language learning strategies more frequently and more appropriately than did less successful learners. The researchers believe that language-learning strategy plays a significant role in FL learning, due to the fact that language-learning strategies can help learners to facilitate the acquisition, storage, retrieval or use of information, and increase self-confidence.