Desktop version

Home arrow Education arrow Chinese Educational Migration and Student-Teacher Mobilities: Experiencing Otherness


I wish to express my gratitude to Professor Michalis Lianos for his unfailing encouragement and his very valuable suggestions, which helped in the development of some of the ideas in this chapter. I thank Mrs. Frederique Menant and Mrs. Gyongyer Demeny for their generous assistance and advice during the preparation of the manuscript. Any remaining errors or omissions are the responsibility of the author alone.

1. The Chinese household registration that determines eligibility for social benefits, including schooling for one's child.


Al-Rasheed, M. (1994). The myth of return: Iraqi Arab and Assyrian refugees in

London. Journal of Refugee Studies 7(2-3), 199-219.

Ascencio, C. (2006). L'insertion professionnelle des Chinois francophones dans les entreprises frangaises en Chine [The employment of French-speaking Chinese in French companies in China]. In Zheng, L. & Yang, X. (Eds), France- Chine: Migrations de pensees et de technologies (pp. 389-394). Paris, France: L'Harmattan.

Baas, M. (2013). In-betweeness: The (dis)connection between here and there. The case of Indian student-migrant in Australia. Conserveries Memorielles, 13. Retrieved from

Bauman, Z. (2000). Liquid Modernity. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Beck, U. (1986). Risikogesellschaft: Auf dem Weg in eine andere Moderne [Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity]. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp.

  • --. (1992). Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • --. (1998). Politics of risk society. In Franklin, J. (Ed.). The Politics of Risk

Society (pp. 9-22). Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

  • --. (1999). World Risk Society. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
  • --. (2007). Beyond class and nation: reframing social inequalities in a globalizing world. The British Journal of Sociology 58(4), 679-705.
  • --. (2009). World at Risk. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
  • --. (2010). Remapping social inequalities in an age of climate change: for a

cosmopolitan renewal of sociology. Global Networks 10(2), 165-181.

--. (2013). Why 'class' is too soft a category to capture the explosiveness of

social inequality at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The British Journal of Sociology 64(1), 63-74.

Beck, U. & Beck-Gernsheim, E. (2002). Individualization: Institutionalized Individualism and its Social and Political Consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Beck, U. & Grande, E. (2010). Varieties of second modernity: the cosmopolitan turn in social and political theory and research. The British Journal of Sociology 61(3), 409-443.

Bolognani, M. (2007). The myth of return: dismissal, survival or revival? A Bradford example of transnationalism as a political instrument. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 33(1), 59-76.

Cai, H. (2012). Deploying the Chinese knowledge diaspora: a case study of Peking University. Asia Pacific Journal of Education 32(3), 367-379.

Castel, R. (2009). La montee des incertitudes: Travail, protections, statut de l'individu [The rise of uncertainty: Work, protection, status of the individual]. Paris, France: Seuil.

Cheng, X. (2002). Non-remaining and non-returning: the Mainland Chinese students in Japan and Europe since the 1970s. In Nyiri, P. & Saveliev, I.R. (Eds), Globalising Chinese Migration: Trends in Europe and Asia (pp. 158-172). Hampshire, UK: Ashgate.

--. (2003). [The Study of Contemporary Overseas Chinese

Students]. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Press for Social Sciences.

Curran, D. (2013a). Risk society and the distribution of bads: theorizing class in the risk society. The British Journal of Sociology 64(1), 44-62.

--. (2013b). What is a critical theory of the risk society? A reply to Beck. The

British Journal of Sociology 64(1), 75-80.

de Haas, H. (2010). Migration and development: a theoretical perspective. International Migration Review 44(1), 227-264.

--. (2012). The migration and development pendulum: a critical view on

research and policy. International Migration 50(3), 8-25.

Deneuve, C. (September 2001). Besoins de main-d'oeuvre des entreprises et recours a l'immigration: Quelles perspectives ? [Companies' needs of manpower and the use of immigration: What prospects?]. Migrations internationales. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Commissariat General du Plan, Paris, France.

Dumitru, S. (2009). L'ethique du debat sur la fuite des cerveaux [Ethics of the brain drain debate]. Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales 25(1), 119-135.

Ennafaa, R. & Paivandi, S. (2008a). Le non-retour des etudiants etrangers: Au-dela de la « fuite des cerveaux » [Non-return of foreign students: Beyond the 'brain drain']. Formation Emploi 103(3), 23-39.

--. (2008b). Les etudiants etrangers en France: Enquete sur les projets, les parcours

et les conditions de vie [Foreign students in France: Survey on projects, life-courses and living conditions]. Paris, France: La Documentation frangaise.

Fabre, J. & Guillerm, M. (2007). Les etudiants etrangers dans l'enseignement superieur frangais: Une croissance soutenue par les Asiatiques [Foreign students in French higher education: A growth sustained by the Asians]. Note d'Information 07-02: Direction de Revaluation, de la prospective et de la performance [DEPP].

Han, S.-J. & Shim, Y.-H. (2010). Redefining second modernity for East Asia: a critical assessment. The British Journal of Sociology 61(3), 465-488.

Hao, J. & Welch, A.R. (2012). A tale of sea turtles: job-seeking experiences of Hai Gui (high-skilled returnees) in China. Higher Education Policy 25(2), 243-260.

Hargreaves, A.G. (2007). Multi-Ethnic France: Immigration, Politics, Culture and Society. New York, NY: Routledge.

Heran, F. (2007). Le temps des immigres: Essai sur le destin de la population frangaise [The Age of Immigrants: An Essay on the Destiny of the French Population]. Paris, France: Seuil.

Heran, F., Aoudai, M. & Richard, J.-L. (2002). Immigration, marche du travail, integration: Rapport du seminaire preside par Frangois Heran [Immigration, labour market, integration: Report of the seminar chaired by Frangois Heran]. Report of the meeting of the Commissariat general du plan, Paris, France.

Hoffman, L. (2006). Autonomous choices and patriotic professionalism: on governmentality in late-socialist China. Economy and Society 35(4), 550-570.

--. (2010). Patriotic Professionalism in Urban China: Fostering Talent.

Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Hu, Y. (2004). Le metier d'etudiant Stranger: Le cas des etudiants chinois non special- istes de frangais en France [The Life of Foreign Student: The Case of Chinese Students Non-specialised in French Studies in France]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Universite Paris 3, Paris, France.

Huddleston, T., Niessen, J., Chaoimh, E.N. & White, E. (2011). Migrant Integration Policy Index III France. Brussels, Belgium: British Council and Migration Policy Group.

Jonkers, K. (2010). Mobility, Migration and the Chinese Scientific Research System. London, UK: Routledge.

King, R. & Ruiz-Gelices, E. (2003). International student migration and the European 'Year Abroad': effects on European identity and subsequent migration behaviour. International Journal of Population Geography 9(3), 229-252.

Knight, F.H. (1921). Risk, Uncertainty and Profit. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Le Bail, H. (2006). La nouvelle immigration chinoise au Japon: Circulation des elites transnationales et reconfiguration des citoyennetes nationales et locales [The new Chinese Immigration in Japan: Movements of Transnational Elites and Reconfiguration of National and Local Citizenships]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. IEP, Paris, France.

-. (2009). La nouvelle immigration chinoise au Japon: Valorisation de

la mobilite et espace de vie regional [The New Chinese Immigration to Japan: Development of Mobilities and Regional Life Space]. In Cortes, G. & Faret, L. (Eds), Les circulations transnationales: Lire les turbulences migratoires contemporaines (pp. 175-186). Paris, France: Armand Colin.

Leung, M.W.H. (2013). 'Read ten thousand books, walk ten thousand miles': geographical mobility and capital accumulation among Chinese scholars. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 38(2), 311-324.

Li, Y. (2010). Transformation des marches du travail et dynamiques de l'immigration etudiante chinoise en France [Transformation of Labour Markets and Dynamics of Chinese Student Immigration in France]. In Jacquot, L., Higele, J.-P., Lhotel, H., & Nosbonne, C. (Eds), Formes et structures du salariat: Crise, mutation, devenir (Vol. 1, pp. 271-283). Nancy, France: Presses Universitaires de Nancy.

Li, Y. (2014). La construction sexuee du parcours d'insertion des diplomes chinois en France [The Gendered Construction of the Integration Path of Chinese Graduates in France]. In Devineau, S., Annoot, E. & Dezalay, T. (Eds), Formation, qualification, emploi en Normandie: La construction du genre (pp.127-164). Rouen, France: Presses Universitaires de Rouen et du Havre.

Lian, S. (2009). [Ant Tribes: A Record of Inhabited Village

of University Graduates]. Guilin, China: Guangxi Normal University Press.

Liu, H. (2005). New migrants and the revival of overseas Chinese nationalism. Journal of Contemporary China 14(43), 291-316.

Liu, N. (2009). Social movements theory: paradigmatic shifts and its relevance with contemporary Chinese field social research. The Journal of Jiangsu Administration Institute 4, 76-82.

Liu, Y. (2009). Composite Risks and Composite Management in Transnational Society. Paper presented at a workshop at Kobe University, Japan.

Liu-Farrer, G. (2011). Making careers in the occupational niche: Chinese students in corporate Japan's transnational business. Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies 37(5), 785-803.

Lyng, S. (2008). Edgework, risk and uncertainty. In Zinn, J.O. (Ed.), Social Theories of Risk and Uncertainty: An Introduction (pp. 106-137). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Maillard, D. (2009). Circulation des cerveaux entre la Chine et la Californie: Etudiants, ingenieurs, entrepreneurs et capital-risqueurs chinois dans la Silicon Valley [Brain Circulation between China and California: Chinese Students, Engineers, Entrepreneurs and Venture Capitalists in Silicon Valley]. Paris, France: L'Harmattan.

Meyer, J.-B. (2001). Network approach versus brain drain: lessons from the diaspora. International Migration 39(5), 91-110.

Nyiri, P. (2001). Expatriating is patriotic? The discourse on 'new migrants' in the People's Republic of China and the identity construction among recent migrants from the PRC. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 27, 635-653.

-. (2002). From class enemies to patriots: overseas Chinese and emigration

policy and discourse in the People's Republic of China. In Nyiri, P. & Saveliev,

I.R. (Eds), Globalising Chinese Migration: Trends in Europe and Asia (pp. 208-241). Hampshire, UK: Ashgate.

--. (2010). Mobility and Cultural Authority in Contemporary China. Seattle, WA:

University of Washington Press.

Nyiri, P. & Breidenbach, J. (Eds) (2005). China Inside Out: Contemporary Chinese Nationalism and Transnationalism. Budapest, Hungary: Central European University Press.

Pan, S.-Y. (2011). Education abroad, human capital development, and national competitiveness: China's brain gain strategies. Frontiers of Education in China 6(1), 106-138.

Portes, A. (2001). Introduction: the debates and significance of immigrant transnationalism. Global Networks 1(3), 181-194.

Rocca, J.-L. (May 2007). Quand la Chine redecouvre la question sociale [When China Rediscovers the Social Question]. Le Monde diplomatique, pp. 10-11.

Rose, N. (1996). Governing 'advanced' liberal democracies. In Barry, A., Osborne, T. & Rose, N. (Eds), Foucault and Political Reason: Liberalism, Neo-Liberalism, and Rationalities of Government (pp. 37-64). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Roulleau-Berger, L. (2007). Introduction: Nouvelles migrations chinoises et marches du travail europeens [Introduction: New Chinese Migrations and European Labour Markets]. In L. Roulleau-Berger (Ed.), Nouvelles migrations chinoises et travail en Europe (pp. 9-16). Toulouse, France: Presses universitaires du Mirail.

Saravia, N.G. & Miranda, J.F. (2004). Plumbing the brain drain. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82(8), 608-615.

Sayad, A. (2006). L'immigration ou les paradoxes de l'alterite: L'illusion du provisoire (Vol. 1) [Immigration or the Paradoxes of Otherness: The Illusion of Temporary]. Paris, France: Raisons d'agir.

Schiller, N.G., Basch, L. & Blanc-Szanton, C. (1992). Towards a definition of transnationalism. Introductory remarks and research questions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 645(1), ix-xiv.

Sinatti, G. (2011). 'Mobile transmigrants' or 'unsettled returnees'? Myth of return and permanent resettlement among Senegalese migrants. Population, Space and Place 17 (2), 153-166.

Soysal, Y.N. (2012). Citizenship, immigration, and the European social project: rights and obligations of individuality. The British Journal of Sociology 63(1), 1-21.

Taylor-Gooby, P. & Zinn, J.O. (Eds) (2006). Risk in Social Science. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Varrel, A. (2009). 'Back to Bangalore'. Le retour, une etape de la circulation des migrants indiens les plus qualifies [Return, a Step in the Movement of the Most Skilled Indian Migrants]. In Cortes, G. & Faret, L. (Eds), Les Circulations Transnationales: Lire les Turbulences Migratoires Contemporaines (pp. 199-209). Paris, France: Armand Colin.

Wang, H. (2005). ^Й№К [Returning Times]. Beijing, China: Central Compilation & Translation Press.

--. (2007). [Contemporary Chinese Returnees]. Beijing, China:

China Development Press.

-. (2009). [The Report on the Development of Chinese

Overseas Educated Talents]. Beijing, China: China Machine Press.

--. (2012). [Annual Report on the Development of Study Abroad

in China] (Vol. 1). Beijing, China: Social Sciences Academic Press.

Welch, A. R., & Cai, H. (2011). Enter the Dragon: The internationalization of China's higher education system. In Ryan, J. (Ed.), China's Higher Education Reform and Internationalization (pp. 9-33). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Welch, A.R. & Hao, J. (2013). Returnees and diaspora as source of innovation in Chinese higher education. Frontiers of Education in China 8(2), 214-238.

--. (2014). 'Hai Gui'and 'Hai Dai': The job-seeking experiences of high-

skilled returnees to China. In Mok, K.H. & Yu, K.M. (Eds), Internationalization of Higher Education in East Asia: Trends of Student Mobility and Impact on Education Governance (pp. 90-114). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Welch, A.R. & Zhen, Z. (2008). Higher education and global talent flows: brain drain, overseas Chinese intellectuals, and diasporic knowledge networks. Higher Education Policy 21(4), 519-537.

Williams, A.M. & Balaz, V. (2012). Migration, risk, and uncertainty: theoretical perspectives. Population, Space and Place 18(2), 167-180.

Wingens, M., de Valk, H., Windzio, M. & Aybek, C. (2011). The sociological life course approach and research on migration and integration. In Wingens, M., Windzio, M., de Valk, H. & Aybek, C. (Eds), A Life-Course Perspective on Migration and Integration (pp. 1-26). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

Xiang, B. (2003). Emigration from China: a sending country perspective. International Migration 41(3), 21-48.

--. (2011). A ritual economy of 'talent': China and overseas Chinese professionals. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 37(5), 821-838.

Xiao, S. (August 2004). 'Return to China or Remain in the U.S.?' Gendered Settlement Preferences among Chinese Students in the US. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, San Francisco, CA. Retrieved from

Yan, Y. (2010). The Chinese path to individualization. The British Journal of Sociology 61(3), 489-512.

Zetter, R. (1999). Reconceptualizing the myth of return: continuity and transition amongst the Greek-Cypriot refugees of 1974. Journal of Refugee Studies 12(1), 1-22.

Zhang, L. & Ong, A. (Eds) (2008). Privatizing China: Socialism from Afar. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Zinn, J.O. (2004). Literature Review: Sociology and Risk. SCARR Working Paper 2004/1. University of Kent. Canterbury, UK. Retrieved from http://www.kent. pdf.

Zinn, J.O. & Taylor-Gooby, P. (2006). Risk as an interdisciplinary research area. In Taylor-Gooby, P. & Zinn, J.O. (Eds), Risk in Social Science (pp. 20-53). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Zweig, D. (2006). Competing for talent: China's strategies to reverse the brain drain. International Labour Review 145(1-2), 65-90.

Zweig, D. & Chen, C. (1995). China's Brain Drain to The United States: Views of Overseas Chinese Students and Scholars in the 1990s. Berkeley, CA: Institute of East Asian Studies.

Zweig, D., Fung, C.S. & Han, D. (2008). Redefining the brain drain: China's 'diaspora option'. Science Technology & Society 13(1), 1-33.

< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >