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  • 1. By Wiccanate Paganism I mean the much wider Pagan community who, while not Wiccan initiates, largely follow the cosmology, theology and ritual praxis developed by Wiccans. Wiccanate Paganism may be contrasted with various forms of Pagan Reconstructionism, such as Kemetism (contemporary Egyptian Paganism), Hellenic Reconstructionism and Asatru.
  • 2. Influenced by Nietzsche’s early usage of the Greek myths and Dionysian paeans, Tchernichovsky aimed at finding in Judaism parallels for the Greek heroes. This Nietzschean influence is most clearly represented in his 1899 poem, “Facing Apollo’s Statue” (Ohana 2012: 41). Tchernichovsky also translated the Epic of Gilgamesh into Hebrew.
  • 3. The larger research project is intended to result in the first book- length study of contemporary Paganism in Israel.
  • 4. A lengthier description of the IPC’s development can be found in Feraro (2014).
  • 5. Part of the Wiccan Wheel of the Year, Mabon, the Autumn Equinox, is celebrated in late September. Hutton (2008) provides an analysis of the shaping of modern Pagan seasonal festivals.
  • 6. The majority of modern Pagans globally are not active in organized groups but work as solitaries, who may join with other Pagans only occasionally, particularly at Pagan summer festivals (Clifton 2006: 11, 12, 164).
  • 7. Dawson maintains a website ( and a personal blog ( In recent years, she has published two books on Natib Qadish, and edited an anthology on wider forms of Canaanite Reconstructionism (Dawson 2009, 2011, 2013).
  • 8. Seehttp: // 2012/10/shanatu-qadishti- natib-qadish-sacred.html, accessed 28 June 2015.
  • 9. All quotations from Raz in this chapter have been transcribed and extracted from my interview with him on 28 October 2013.
  • 10. All quotations from Emily in this chapter have been transcribed and extracted from my interview with her on 5 November 2013.
  • 24. See, accessed 28 June 2015.
  • 25. Translated from, accessed 28 June 2015.
  • 26. Translated from 12/%D7%A9%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%9D, accessed 28 June 2015.
  • 27. As Kathryn Rountree noted more than ten years ago, “It is a paradox that while they frequently claim that they have no ‘sacred book’ (like the Bible) which sets out their doctrine and provides a guide for living, ... witches probably read more on the subject of their spirituality than the members of any other religious group” (Rountree 2004: 41).
  • 28. I have previously noted the importance attributed by IPC members to holding their own annual festivals without “importing” workshops by notable overseas Pagan teachers as a symbol of the community’s maturing and independence (Feraro 2014: 67).


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Dawson, T. (2009). Whisper of stone: Modern Canaanite religion. Winchester: O Books.

Dawson, T. (Ed.). (2011). Anointed: A devotional anthology for the deities of the Near and Middle East. Egypt: Bibliotheca Alexandrina.

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Feraro, S. (2014). Two steps forward, one step back: The shaping of a communitybuilding discourse among Israeli Pagans, 1999-2012. Israel Studies Review, 29(2), 57-77.

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Hutton, R. (2009). Blood and mistletoe: The history of the Druids in Britain. New Haven: Yale University Press.

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Ohana, D. (2012). The origins of Israeli mythology: Neither Canaanites nor crusaders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Rountree, K. (2004). Embracing the witch and the goddess: Feminist ritual-makers in New Zealand. London and New York: Routledge.

Salomonsen, J. (2002). Enchanted feminism: The Reclaiming Witches of San Francisco. London and New York: Routledge.

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