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Dimensions of Racism in Advertising: From Slavery to the Twenty-First Century

PrefaceThe History of Race in AdvertisingMulticultural Marketing and Its Impact on African American IdentityConclusionThe Organization of This BookHistory of the Regulation of Ethnic Diversity in Advertising Agency EmploymentEmployment Discrimination in Advertising: Realities and PerceptionsHistory of Labor Regulation in Advertising:Civil Rights Struggles and Advertising EmploymentWhy Representation Is the Primary Concern:Overview of Racism in Nineteenth-Century AdvertisingEarly Twentieth CenturyMid-Twentieth CenturyThe 1960s and 1970s: Representation Improves, But Is It Positive?The 1980s: A Fundamental Turn to More Positive ImagesLate Twentieth-Century Multicultural Marketing EffortsThe 1990s and 2000s: Rise of Multicultural MarketingConclusion: Why Is Regulation of Minority Hiring Essential?Modern Newspapers and the Formation of White Racial Group ConsciousnessNormalization of Whiteness a Vital Issue in Race and Media StudiesWhite Group Consciousness and Mass Culture in the Early Nineteenth CenturyThe Penny Press Signals the Formation of a New Social GroupArticulations of White-Race Discourse in the Penny PressThe Penny Press as an Articulation of Class/Labor/Race DistinctionsThe Penny Press and the Elevation of “White” LaborWhen Race Is the Story: The Advent of Modern JournalismThe Practices of Modern Media Approaching the Twenty-first CenturyNotesRacism, Political Communication, and American Presidential ElectionsThe Theoretical FrameworkThe American Architecture of Racism: Nature and DynamicsRacist Political Advertisements and American Presidential ElectionsCase Studies of Presidential ElectionsThe 1968 Presidential RaceThe 1972 Presidential ContestThe 1980 Presidential ElectionThe 1984 Lopsided RaceWillie Horton and the 1988 RaceThe Epochal 2008 ContestObama’s Election: Farewell to Racist Advertisments in Presidential Elections?ConclusionDiversity in Advertising in the Twenty-First CenturyAimsConceptual AnalysisDimensionality of Diversity in Advertising in the 21st CenturyConclusion
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