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The Caspian Sea Chessboard. Geo-Political, Geo-Strategic, and Geo-Economic Analysis

I What is at Stake: Transnational IssuesCaspian ‘Sea’1 and Its International Legal StatusHistorical background of international legal status of Caspian ‘sea’Doctrinal overview of international legal status and regulations that may apply to the Caspian ‘sea’Legal issues of the delimitation of the Caspian as an important element of the future international legal statusConclusionsMilitarization of the Caspian Sea: Naval Arms Race and Conflicting InterestsNaval history of the Caspian Seas: Emergence of new naval actorss: Initiatives for naval cooperationEnd of 2000s and beginning 2010s: Acceleration to the full-scale arms-race in the Caspian Sea?ConclusionsEnergy Infrastructure Protection and the Caspian OffshoreEnergy infrastructures as a key assetOrigin of threats to energy infrastructuresContext and infrastructure protectionSecurity threats in the Caspian contextCountermeasures and challenges aheadConclusionsEscaping the Tragedy of the Commons: Environmental Cooperation in the Caspian SeaThe tragedy of the commonsThe Caspian as a ‘transnational common’Evidence of the ‘tragedy’: depletion and degradation of Caspian resourcesSea level and salinityHydrocarbonsFisheries and marine animal populationOther forms of pollutionEnvironmental security: the existing Caspian cooperation frameworkClimate change: dealing with an uncertain, global problemConclusionsII Litoral States’ Perceptions and PoliciesThe Importance of the Caspian Sea to Azerbaijan: Opportunities, Challenges and ProspectsRestoration of Azerbaijan’s independence and the emergence of new coastal state on the Caspian SeaGeostrategic importance of the Caspian Sea for AzerbaijanThe Caspian Sea resources and their importance for Azerbaijan’s economyImpact of the Caspian Sea as the factor in the formation of Azerbaijan’s foreign policyAzerbaijan’ perception on regional cooperation: the existing and potential opportunitiesConclusionsRussia in the Caspian Region: An Attempt to Preserve an Inherited RoleUSSR demise as the foundation for Russia’s inherited role and its new claims in regional energy dynamicsRussia’s interests in the oil sectorRussia’s interests in the gas sectorConclusionsIran’s Policy in Caspian Sea Basin and beyond: The Great Game 2.0Iran’s security environment and relationship with Caspian Basin countriesSurvival and religion: Iran’s winning hand in Middle EastConclusionsGeopolitics of Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan in the Caspian RegionPolicies of Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan over the issues of determining the status of the Caspian SeaPosition of Turkmenistan on the international status of the Caspian Sea. Kazakhstan’s position on the international status of the Caspian Sea.ConclusionsIII Interests and Policies of Global and Regional ActorsOn Regions and Regional Framings: The Missing Link between the European Union and the Caspian Sea BasinIt’s all about energyAssessing the nature of the Caspian BasinEU and the Caspian Basin: the importance of a regional approachConclusionsThe Caspian Sea Basin in United States Strategic Thinking and PoliciesEngaging the Caspian: Clinton Administration strategic thinking and policiesBush Administration’s ‘security first’ approach toward the CaspianObama Administration’s Caspian policy: reinventing regional commitmentConclusions: the Caspian Basin in US strategic thinkingChinese ‘Good Neighborhood Policy’ and Energy Diplomacy toward the Caspian SeaThe rationale of Chinese approach toward the Caspian Sea areaChina’s energy supply needsChinese imports from the Caspian areaChina-Turkmenistan: the end of Russian monopolyChina-Kazakhstan: Strategic partnership and even moreAccomplishments and setbacksTurkey’s Policy towards the Caspian Sea Region: Widenining Gap between Ankara’s Expectations and CapabilitiesPrinciples of Turkey’s foreign policy towards the Caspian Sea regionGeo-strategic and diplomatic dimensions of Turkey’s Caspian Sea policyGeo-economic and energy dimensions of Turkey’s Caspian Sea policyGeo-cultural dimension of Turkey’s Caspian Sea policyInstitutional framework of Turkey’s relations with the Caspian regionTurkey’s performance and the widening gap between its expectations and capabilitiesConclusions

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