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Supporting Research

Modem therapists often incorporate Jungian therapeutic techniques and assessments. For example, the majority of therapists use the TAT as part of their assessment (Camara et al., 2000), and most psychoanalysts incorporate dream analysis as a component of most of their analytic sessions (Hill, Schottenbauer, Liu, Spangler, & Sim, 2008). However, when psychoanalysts are compared with other practitioners, only one third of other therapists analyze dreams (Schredl, Bohusch, Kahl, Mader, & Somesan, 2000). There has also been recent research in the use of dream analysis when working with traumatized children and adults (Najam, Mansoor, Kanwal, & Naz, 2006). Other research supports the use of dream work for adults and children experiencing end-of-life issues (Goelitz, 2007; Lempen &

Midgley, 2006). However, there are no empirical studies documenting the efficacy of psychoanalytic and Jungian intervention (Hill et al., 2008; Sharf, 2008).

In contrast, there has been a great deal of research on the interventions and assessments founded on Jungian principles. For example, a literature review of the past 10 years reveals 504 peer-reviewed articles on the validity of the MBTI and 240 peer-reviewed articles on the validity of the TAT.

Summary Chart: Jungian Analytical Theory

Human Nature

People desire to be whole. They strive for an awareness of their conscious and unconscious self. Spirituality and the collective unconscious play a major role in the motivation of emotions and behaviors. Personalities can be categorized along the continuum of the attitudes of introversion and extra version and along polarity of four functions: thinking versus feeling, and intuiting versus sensing. Individual personalities fall on various points along the continuum and affect their relationship with their internal, personal experiences as well as their interaction with the external world.

Major Constructs

Personality consists of the psyche, which includes all conscious and unconscious thoughts. The unconscious consists of the personal and the collective unconscious. The collective unconscious stems from the genetic experiences of one's ancestors, as well as from one's culture, religion, society, and ethnic background. Integration and unity are the goals of the developed personality. Within the conscious and unconscious are the attitudes, feelings, behaviors, motivations for behaviors, and spirituality. Personality can be analyzed through examination of the case history, transference and countertransference, and projective tests such as the Rorschach.

Goals

The goals of therapy are to help clients become aware of their conscious and unconscious thoughts and to become fully integrated. Jungians believe that it is beneficial for people to become aware of their personal and the collective unconscious. The relationship between the Jungian analyst and the client is a unique experience for each of them, and the goals of therapy are unique to each individual. The immediate goal of therapy is to alleviate the intense emotional suffering (Stein, 1995). Jung believed that healing the mind was like curing the soul, and that the relationship between the therapist and the client is similar to the relationship between a minister and his or her congregation (Jung, 1928).

Interventions

The therapist establishes a relationship and gains information on the client. To this end, the therapist may use assessments such as word association tests, TAT, MBTI, and the Rorschach Inkblot Test. The therapist will rely on interpretation of dreams to gain understanding of the client's personal and collective unconscious. This intervention will be part of therapy throughout the therapeutic relationship. The therapist will also focus on the transference and countertransference occurring between the analyst and the client. The bulk of the work will take place through talk therapy, in which the client will be encouraged to share his or her thoughts, feelings, dreams, and desires (Stein, 1995).

Limitations

The Jungian psychological approach has several limitations. Appropriate application of the techniques and interventions require advanced training for the therapist. For the client, it requires a high degree of abstract thinking and an acceptance of ambiguity. The client must be willing to engage in in-depth analysis of dreams, engage in transference and countertransference, and examine the symbolism of unconscious thoughts, images, and feelings. Although there is a great deal of research on the assessment instruments spawned by the Jungian theory, there is a startling lack of empirical data to support the efficacy of the Jungian psychoanalytical approach.

 
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