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Inserting Observers in the Network

Note that V can also rely on additional nodes that it controls within the Bitcoin network—observers—which would directly relay to V all the transactions that they

Setting

Detection probability

Europe, 8 connections, 3 helpers

10%

Europe, 8 connections, 3 helpers

10%

South America, 8 connections, 2 helpers

6.66%

Asia Pacific, 8 connections, 2 helpers

20%

North America, 20 connections, 5 helpers

11%

North America, 20 connections, 5 helpers

10%

North America, 20 connections, 1 helper

30%

North America, 20 connections, 4 helpers

63%

North America, 20 connections, 2 helpers

20%

North America, 20 connections, 1 helper

30%

Europe, 20 connections, 3 helpers

45%

Europe, 30 connections, 1 helper

10%

Asia Pacific, 40 connections, 1 helper

10%

Europe, 40 connections, 1 helper

10%

Europe, 40 connections, 2 helpers

20%

South America, 40 connections, 1 helper

40%

Asia Pacific, 80 connections, 1 helper

20%

Europe, 80 connections, 1 helper

26.66%

Asia Pacific, 100 connections, 1 helper

80%

receive. This countermeasure circumvents the limitations of the listening period as it is hard for an adversary to identify all observers in the network and deny them the delivery of TRa. However, this technique incurs additional costs on merchants who have to invest in additional equipment to deploy observers in various locations around the globe. As shown in Table 4.4 (results adapted from [1]), almost five different observers need to be deployed across the globe to ensure that at least one observer detects double-spending attacks. [1]

Table 4.3

Experimental Instances Where TRa Is Not Received by V 6

Setting

Success probability

South America, 8 connections, 3 helpers

7.7%

South America, 8 connections, 4 helpers

57%

Asia Pacific, 8 connections, 3 helpers

57%

Asia Pacific, 8 connections, 3 helpers

66%

North America, 20 connections, 3 helpers

47%

Asia Pacific, 60 connections, 1 helper

20%

  • [1] Here, ‘Setting’ refers to the location of V, the number of connections of V at the time of the attack,and the number of helpers employed by A.
 
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