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Refusing Incoming ConnectionsThe success probability of doublespending attacks on zeroconfirmation transactions heavily depends on the propagation delay of TRy from A to V. Clearly, a direct communication channel between A and V considerably contributes to the success of the attack. For instance, if merchants do not accept incoming connections or are located behind firewalls and NATs, then the success probability of doublespending attacks can be reduced. Note that it is hard, however, for merchants to ensure that all their current connections are trustworthy. For example, their connections can be compromised by the adversary. Increasing the Number of NeighborsWe additionally point out that the number of connections established by V is an important parameter affecting the success of doublespending attacks. That is, the fewer connections of V, the more likely is that all the neighbors of V receive TRy before TRa and thus that V does not receive TRa and therefore cannot detect the attack. Similarly, as the number of connections of V increases, it is more likely that ^{[1]} Table 4.4 Experimental Detection Probability Using 5 Observers ^{7}
some of these neighbors receive TRa before TRy and forward it to V, who can immediately detect a doublespending attempt.

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