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Clients With Serious Mental Health Issues

Cognitive-behavioral therapies have been developed and used with clients with a wide range of clinical problems. The Web site mentioned earlier (psychologicaltreatment. org) provides information on the use of CBT with clients who have a variety of clinical problems. The work on empirically supported treatments is indicative of the efficacy of CBT with people who have serious mental illnesses, including anxiety and mood disorders, and the more serious schizophrenia and psychotic disorders.

The use of CBT in inpatient settings for children and adolescents has been elucidated by Stone (2007) and studied by Veltro et al. (2008). The latter research team noted that ward atmosphere was improved by the use of group-based CBT interventions for patients hospitalized for schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder, or a personality disorder. In addition, readmissions declined and patient satisfaction increased after a group CBT was added to the inpatient treatment program.

In other research-based examples, CBT has been used to treat schizophrenia (Turking- ton, Kingdon, & Turner, 2002). In Turkington et al.'s study, a brief CBT program was applied by psychiatric nurses to patients with schizophrenia. Caretakers of the patients with schizophrenia were also included in the treatment. Participants' symptoms of schizophrenia were reduced in this study. Many patients expressed satisfaction with the CBT approach; nearly 57% rated the overall program as "it helped me more than anything previously to understand my illness" (p. 525).

In addition, CBT has been studied as treatment for panic disorder (Addis et alv 2004). Patients who received the CBT-based panic therapy improved more than those who received a control therapy. Applications of CBT to clients who abuse substances have also revealed that CBT can be an effective treatment (Baker, Boggs, & Lewin, 2001; De Wildt et al., 2002). Baker and colleagues implemented a CBT program with users of amphetamines and found that significantly more people in the CBT group were abstinent from drug use at a 6-month follow-up when compared with a control group.

As indicated earlier, CBT is a therapeutic approach that is diverse enough to be applied to a wide variety of clinical problems. Therapy manuals and research protocols continue to be the focus of ongoing research to study the use of CBT in people who face a variety of clinical disorders.

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